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see intestineintestine,
muscular hoselike portion of the gastrointestinal tract extending from the lower end of the stomach (pylorus) to the anal opening. In humans this fairly narrow (about 1 in./2.
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; pancreaspancreas
, glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. In humans, the pancreas is a yellowish organ about 7 in. (17.8 cm) long and 1.5 in. (3.8 cm) wide. It lies beneath the stomach and is connected to the small intestine at the duodenum (see digestive system).
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the first section (individually distinct in man, mammals, and birds) of the small intestine, from the pylorus to the jejunum.

The length of the duodenum in man is approximately 25–30 cm (the width of about 12 fingers—hence the name); its volume is 150–250 ml. The wall of the duodenum consists of three layers: the inner layer of mucous membrane, the middle layer of muscular membrane, and the external layer of serous membrane. The mucous membrane forms numerous transverse folds, its surface studded with villi; it contains cells that manufacture an intestinal juice containing enzymes that break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates; it also contains enterokinase, which converts trypsinogen, the inactive enzyme of pancreatic juice, to the active trypsin. In the wall of the upper portion of the duodenum are the so-called Brun-ner’s glands, which, in structure and in the composition of the juice they secrete, are closely related to the glands of the pyloric portion of the stomach. The effluent ducts of the pancreas and liver open into the duodenal cavity through a common aperture. The acidic, gruel-like food mass (chyme) passing from the stomach continues to be digested in the duodenum under the influence of enzymes of the alkaline pancreatic and intestinal juices. Proteins are broken down into amino acids, carbohydrates into monosaccharides, and fats into glycerol and fatty acids. Bile promotes the digestion and absorption of fats. Through the walls of the villi the products of proteolysis and glycolysis enter the blood; the products of lypolysis enter the lymph. In the walls of the duodenum an inactive substance is formed (prosecretin) which, under the action of hydrochloric acid entering from the stomach, is converted to the biologically active secretin. Upon entering the blood secretin, acting along with the sympathetic nervous system, stimulates the secretion of pancreatic juice. Ulcer is the most common disease of the duodenum.


[dü′äd·ən·əm or dü·ə′dē·nəm]
The first section of the small intestine of mammals, extending from the pylorus to the jejunum.


the first part of the small intestine, between the stomach and the jejunum
References in periodicals archive ?
17-21 Previous reports and the current study demonstrate similar outcomes underscoring effective role of this procedure in patients with duodenal cancer.
This time, histopathology of this biopsy from the duodenal mass revealed metastatic RCC.
In sensitivity analyses, however, FMT delivered by duodenal infusion or enema was not superior to other strategies.
The data used in the application was from a double-blind comparative Phase II/III study in 472 patients who required long-term administration of low-dose aspirin and who were confirmed to also have a history of gastric or duodenal ulcer.
Combination of partial situs inversus, polysplenia and annular pancreas with duodenal obstruction and intestinal malrotation.
Duodenal injuries caused by blunt abdominal trauma: Value of CT in differentiating perforation from hematoma.
A review of the Duodenal Ulcer products under development by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources.
Duodenal injuries secondary to blunt trauma can range in severity from an intramural haematoma to a complete transection and devascularization of the duodenum, and are graded 1-5 by the American Association for Surgery of Trauma [2, 5, 6].
Intraoperative assessment confirmed that the duodenal mass resection was not feasible using a robot, so the decision was made to convert to an open duodenectomy using a supraumbilical midline incision.
pylori is left untreated, it can damage the stomach and small intestine wall causing peptic ulcer disease, specifically duodenal ulcers, added the company.
Infection by Mycobacterium avium intracellulare in AIDS: endoscopic duodenal appearance mimicking Whipple's disease.
Results: A total of 42 endoscopically proven cases of duodenal ulcer were included in the study, 22 patients received proton pump inhibitor (group A) and 20 received herbal medicine (group B).