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see intestineintestine,
muscular hoselike portion of the gastrointestinal tract extending from the lower end of the stomach (pylorus) to the anal opening. In humans this fairly narrow (about 1 in./2.
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; pancreaspancreas
, glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. In humans, the pancreas is a yellowish organ about 7 in. (17.8 cm) long and 1.5 in. (3.8 cm) wide. It lies beneath the stomach and is connected to the small intestine at the duodenum (see digestive system).
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the first section (individually distinct in man, mammals, and birds) of the small intestine, from the pylorus to the jejunum.

The length of the duodenum in man is approximately 25–30 cm (the width of about 12 fingers—hence the name); its volume is 150–250 ml. The wall of the duodenum consists of three layers: the inner layer of mucous membrane, the middle layer of muscular membrane, and the external layer of serous membrane. The mucous membrane forms numerous transverse folds, its surface studded with villi; it contains cells that manufacture an intestinal juice containing enzymes that break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates; it also contains enterokinase, which converts trypsinogen, the inactive enzyme of pancreatic juice, to the active trypsin. In the wall of the upper portion of the duodenum are the so-called Brun-ner’s glands, which, in structure and in the composition of the juice they secrete, are closely related to the glands of the pyloric portion of the stomach. The effluent ducts of the pancreas and liver open into the duodenal cavity through a common aperture. The acidic, gruel-like food mass (chyme) passing from the stomach continues to be digested in the duodenum under the influence of enzymes of the alkaline pancreatic and intestinal juices. Proteins are broken down into amino acids, carbohydrates into monosaccharides, and fats into glycerol and fatty acids. Bile promotes the digestion and absorption of fats. Through the walls of the villi the products of proteolysis and glycolysis enter the blood; the products of lypolysis enter the lymph. In the walls of the duodenum an inactive substance is formed (prosecretin) which, under the action of hydrochloric acid entering from the stomach, is converted to the biologically active secretin. Upon entering the blood secretin, acting along with the sympathetic nervous system, stimulates the secretion of pancreatic juice. Ulcer is the most common disease of the duodenum.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


[dü′äd·ən·əm or dü·ə′dē·nəm]
The first section of the small intestine of mammals, extending from the pylorus to the jejunum.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


the first part of the small intestine, between the stomach and the jejunum
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The most common endoscopic finding recorded was non-specific gastropathy (40.1%), followed by hiatal hernia, growths (gastric, duodenal and esophageal), reflux esophagitis, ulcers (gastric, duodenal and gastroduodenal), Barret's esophagus, erosions (gastric, duodenal and gastrodoudenal) and esophageal candidiasis in accordance to studies from Pakistan (Multan)20 and India14 but in contrast to a study from Peshawar (Pakistan)17.
In our series, there was more gastric perforations than duodenal perforation, which is a reverse in the trend documented in the literature in our environment (4,5).
The abdominal CT revealed the presence of duodenal diverticulum, which was later-on confirmed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy.
Long-term results of radical resection for locally advanced duodenal adenocarcinoma.
Etiology and Pathogenesis.--Although the exact etiology is still poorly understood, associations with duodenal injury secondary to gastric acid hypersecretion, Helicobacter pylori infection, end-stage renal disease, and uremia have been reported.
pylori infection in gastric and duodenal ulcer patients, it was found that the prevalence of H.
The development of duodenal varices is usually associated with a locoregional component (6).
Duodenal ulceration following gastroduodenal artery embolization with coils.
The exclusion criteria were as follows: an evidence of gastroduodenal malignancies, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, or scar on gastroscopy; liver, biliary, or pancreatic diseases on ultrasound examination; the use of corticosteroids, immunosuppressives, proton pump inhibitors, oral anticoagulants, aspirin, antibiotics known to be active against H.
Although exceedingly rare, duodenal intussusception secondary to Brunner's gland adenomas should be considered in female patients presenting with innocuous upper GIT bleeds with intermittent symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction.