Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to duodenum: pancreas, duodenitis


see intestineintestine,
muscular hoselike portion of the gastrointestinal tract extending from the lower end of the stomach (pylorus) to the anal opening. In humans this fairly narrow (about 1 in./2.
..... Click the link for more information.
; pancreaspancreas
, glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. In humans, the pancreas is a yellowish organ about 7 in. (17.8 cm) long and 1.5 in. (3.8 cm) wide. It lies beneath the stomach and is connected to the small intestine at the duodenum (see digestive system).
..... Click the link for more information.



the first section (individually distinct in man, mammals, and birds) of the small intestine, from the pylorus to the jejunum.

The length of the duodenum in man is approximately 25–30 cm (the width of about 12 fingers—hence the name); its volume is 150–250 ml. The wall of the duodenum consists of three layers: the inner layer of mucous membrane, the middle layer of muscular membrane, and the external layer of serous membrane. The mucous membrane forms numerous transverse folds, its surface studded with villi; it contains cells that manufacture an intestinal juice containing enzymes that break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates; it also contains enterokinase, which converts trypsinogen, the inactive enzyme of pancreatic juice, to the active trypsin. In the wall of the upper portion of the duodenum are the so-called Brun-ner’s glands, which, in structure and in the composition of the juice they secrete, are closely related to the glands of the pyloric portion of the stomach. The effluent ducts of the pancreas and liver open into the duodenal cavity through a common aperture. The acidic, gruel-like food mass (chyme) passing from the stomach continues to be digested in the duodenum under the influence of enzymes of the alkaline pancreatic and intestinal juices. Proteins are broken down into amino acids, carbohydrates into monosaccharides, and fats into glycerol and fatty acids. Bile promotes the digestion and absorption of fats. Through the walls of the villi the products of proteolysis and glycolysis enter the blood; the products of lypolysis enter the lymph. In the walls of the duodenum an inactive substance is formed (prosecretin) which, under the action of hydrochloric acid entering from the stomach, is converted to the biologically active secretin. Upon entering the blood secretin, acting along with the sympathetic nervous system, stimulates the secretion of pancreatic juice. Ulcer is the most common disease of the duodenum.


[dü′äd·ən·əm or dü·ə′dē·nəm]
The first section of the small intestine of mammals, extending from the pylorus to the jejunum.


the first part of the small intestine, between the stomach and the jejunum
References in periodicals archive ?
05) the levels of ATP (in the duodenum and ileum), ADP (in the ileum) and TAN (in the duodenum), whereas reducing (p<0.
Further staging included a positron emission tomography scan, which revealed mild to moderate hypermetabolic activity in the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum and nearby mildly metabolic mesenteric lymph nodes.
Oral contrast, consisting of a T2-shortening agent, is typically administered to suppress the signal from fuid in the duodenum on the T2-weighted sequences.
At laparotomy, it was found that the dorsal mesentery was absent, which caused spontaneous intermittent volvulus of the duodenum with intermittent occlusion of the common bile duct, causing pancreatitis.
The duodenum is a 'C'-shaped organ primarily situated in the retroperitoneum and is anatomically divided into four sections (D1-D4).
Further investigations found he was suffering from an extended duodenum, which could not have been diagnosed, that caused a mechanical blockage and the build up of gastric fluid.
Feeding beyond the stomach into the duodenum or jejunum has been suggested to reduce the risk of aspiration and improve the adequacy of nutrient delivery.
The rapid advance of the cancer caused Jobs to undergo an operation known as a 'Whipple procedure' in which he had his pancreas and duodenum removed.
Most nutrients are absorbed in the first part of the small intestine, the duodenum, but if we eat a large or difficult-to-digest meal, some of the nutrients travel past this into the ileum, at the end of the small intestine.
The fifty-six-year-old has battled pancreatic cancer and undergone a pancreaticoduodenectomy, in which part of the pancreas and the duodenum are removed, to treat the disease.
Caglar Cuhadaroglu, said that Baykam had injuries in his intestines, duodenum and liver after getting stabbed.
For non-morbidly obese patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes, gastric bypass surgery with exclusion of the duodenum was much more likely to resolve diabetes than was a simpler, purely restrictive procedure that does not exclude the duodenum, according to a report.