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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



carrying out similar or identical actions to attain the same aim; or making something in two sets, repetition, doubling. An example of duplication is the joint flight of a pilot trainee and of an instructor in a two-seated training aircraft on which the control instruments are firmly coupled and control can be exercised from either seat.

Duplication, as a one-time reserve, is a technique widely used in technology to increase the reliability of a system or unit or its essential elements or parts. The main and the reserve objects form a duplicated group. Duplication may be of two kinds: in permanent duplication, the main and the reserve objects function simultaneously and are in identical operating conditions; in replacement duplication (manual or automatic), the reserve object begins to function only after the main object fails. Under the second method the reserve object is, until the moment of replacement, in a nonfunctioning state and therefore less liable to failure than the main object.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Now we need to remove the duplicated records and put back the unique ones.
(3) Bilateral duplicated kidneys accompanied by a single ectopic ureteral orifice are extremely rare.
During the elimination process, only one copy of duplicated records are retained and eliminated other duplicate records [8] [9].
Under the new rule, built-in gains are still duplicated, but losses are not.
Because the superfamily's conserved genes are also heavily duplicated within a given species, they provide an excellent system for examining how species, given the basic building blocks of the gene family, copy and rearrange the genes and thereby accumulate a set of enzymes appropriate for their own needs.
The government acknowledged that not only would stock losses reflecting built-in gains and duplicated losses be disallowed, but true economic losses would be disallowed as well.
The final model is then sectioned, machined and all the interior parts duplicated before being laminated together.
Duplicated collecting system is one of the most common congenital renal tract abnormalities, with the incidence of 0.7% to 4%.
The IRS responded to the "duplicated loss" concern by promulgating Temp.
A signal from the original system replaces the missing section and drives the duplicated fragment.
In Rite Aid, the Federal Circuit held that the "duplicated loss" provisions of the loss-disallowance rules (LDR) in Regs.
The point is that we have essentially duplicated the beam, so we can dispense with one to learn about the other."