Duplication


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Duplication

 

carrying out similar or identical actions to attain the same aim; or making something in two sets, repetition, doubling. An example of duplication is the joint flight of a pilot trainee and of an instructor in a two-seated training aircraft on which the control instruments are firmly coupled and control can be exercised from either seat.

Duplication, as a one-time reserve, is a technique widely used in technology to increase the reliability of a system or unit or its essential elements or parts. The main and the reserve objects form a duplicated group. Duplication may be of two kinds: in permanent duplication, the main and the reserve objects function simultaneously and are in identical operating conditions; in replacement duplication (manual or automatic), the reserve object begins to function only after the main object fails. Under the second method the reserve object is, until the moment of replacement, in a nonfunctioning state and therefore less liable to failure than the main object.

O. G. LOSNITSKII and V. N. FOMIN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Single caecum and incomplete duplication usually two tubes with separate mucosa and sub mucosa but enclosed in single muscular coat.
Since Duplication Media's doors opened in 2003, Olson has broadened his list of services as well as obtained new equipment.
Penile duplication and multiple associated anomalies can be managed with multiple surgeries (treatment of the associated anomalies and genital reconstruction) (9).
Subsequent chromosomal analysis of both parents was also completed to determine whether the two interstitial chromosomal gains were de novo in the fetus or from heritable duplication or translocation from a parent.
Various theories have been proposed for development of urethral duplication, but no single theory explains all the various types of anomalies [1].
In this report, we describe an interesting sequela of a 22q11.2 duplication carrier that has not been previously reported.
The SNP microarray revealed a 3.55 MB proximal duplication of 14q11.2 and a 2.10 MB terminal duplication of Xq28 as well as a pseudoautosomal region (Figure 2).
The features were in keeping with a benign midgut duplication cyst, due to the presence of a muscular layer, completely encompassing the defined cyst.
Those who carried the chromosomal duplication showed examples of brain undergrowth, and many had decreased white matter volume and larger ventricles, the cavities in the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid.