duty


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Related to duty: customs duty, Duty cycle, Duty free

duty,

in taxation: see tarifftariff,
tax on imported and, more rarely, exported goods. It is also called a customs duty. Tariffs may be distinguished from other taxes in that their predominant purpose is not financial but economic—not to increase a nation's revenue but to protect domestic industries
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; excise taxesexcise taxes,
governmental levies on specific goods produced and consumed inside a country. They differ from tariffs, which usually apply only to foreign-made goods, and from sales taxes, which typically apply to all commodities other than those specifically exempted.
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.

Duty

 

a category of ethics that expresses the moral task of a particular individual, group of individuals, class, or people under specific social conditions and situations, a task that for them becomes an internally acceptable obligation. In this respect duty differs from the more abstract concept of what is due or fitting, which encompasses all the demands made on people in the form of norms.

In the history of mankind’s moral consciousness, duty has been interpreted in different ways, according to social or class conceptions of man’s obligations at a particular period in history; it has always been connected with specific problems of a time and of a given society. The concept of duty has included the fulfillment of the “simplest rules of the community of man,” which had been developed in the course of history. The problem of the nature of duty has always given rise to disagreement among the various schools and trends of philosophical ethics. The foundations of duty have been connected with the interpretation of moral necessity—the fulfillment of divine commands, cosmic or supernatural laws, official or unofficial social precepts, or self-realization of the internal potential of the personality.

In Marxist ethics, moral duty is regarded as the concretization of general requirements of morality, which have a historical origin and which pertain to existing circumstances, conditions, and a person’s abilities and potentials. These requirements determine the conditions and degree of his responsibility and constitute his motives and conscience. Thus, duty expresses the moral specifics of the socio-ideological position of personality with respect to the existing social situation and to the conflict and disposition of class forces, as well as the moral specifics of internal convictions and the means of their realization.

REFERENCES

Marx, K., and F. Engels. “Nemetskaia ideologiia.” Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 3, pp. 235-36.
Lenin, V. I. “Gosudarstvo i revoliutsiia.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 33, chap. 5.
Lenin, V. I. “Zadachi soiuzov molodezhi.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 41.
Arkhangel’skii, L. M. Kategorii marksistskoi etiki. Moscow, 1963.

O. G. DROBNITSKII

What does it mean when you dream about duty?

To feel bound by duty in a dream may be a reflection of the dreamer’s past experiences in the military. If, however, the dreamer is overly concerned with duty in their dreams, perhaps compulsive behavior or control issues are posing problems.

duty

1. a government tax, esp on imports
2. Brit
a. the quantity or intensity of work for which a machine is designed
b. a measure of the efficiency of a machine
References in periodicals archive ?
For those that reserve early, they'll also earn Founder status within Call of Duty ELITE.
b) Reduction of custom duty from 16 to 5 percent on surgical gown and bandage
The government also brought drastic changes in duty structure of all types of vehicles and targeted 55 tariff lines with up to 100pc additional duties.
The duty rates on new sports cars have been increased by 60% to 80% of the import value.
As per notification, the teachers performing duty during examination of ninth class will not be allowed to perform such duty in tenth class examination likewise teachers performing duty during examination of 10th class will not be allowed to perform such duty during exams of First year intermediate examination.
These truck customers will witness torture testing of the all-new F-Series Super Duty before anyone else in the six-part We Own Work video series.
Japan initiated a national campaign to boost overseas visitors in Japan; 10,000 new Duty Free stores are set to be open in the country
However four consecutive excise duty hikes in three months have reversed this.
ATU Duty Free will operate the duty free shops for a period of eight years and two months, starting in November, TAV Airports said in a statement on Thursday.
Flying from: Manchester, East Midlands and Bournemouth - check out Dixons, World Duty Free and Biza Tax & Duty Free.
Commenting on its sponsorship of the European race, Dubai Duty Free executive vice-chairman Colm McLoughlin said: "Our sponsorship of the Dubai Duty Free Irish Derby has been very successful since we began our support of the race in 2008 and not only does the sponsorship helps promote our own brand but that of Dubai itself.
One of the young men in class raised his hand: "I've never liked that word duty much.