duty

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duty,

in taxation: see tarifftariff,
tax on imported and, more rarely, exported goods. It is also called a customs duty. Tariffs may be distinguished from other taxes in that their predominant purpose is not financial but economic—not to increase a nation's revenue but to protect domestic industries
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; excise taxesexcise taxes,
governmental levies on specific goods produced and consumed inside a country. They differ from tariffs, which usually apply only to foreign-made goods, and from sales taxes, which typically apply to all commodities other than those specifically exempted.
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.

Duty

 

a category of ethics that expresses the moral task of a particular individual, group of individuals, class, or people under specific social conditions and situations, a task that for them becomes an internally acceptable obligation. In this respect duty differs from the more abstract concept of what is due or fitting, which encompasses all the demands made on people in the form of norms.

In the history of mankind’s moral consciousness, duty has been interpreted in different ways, according to social or class conceptions of man’s obligations at a particular period in history; it has always been connected with specific problems of a time and of a given society. The concept of duty has included the fulfillment of the “simplest rules of the community of man,” which had been developed in the course of history. The problem of the nature of duty has always given rise to disagreement among the various schools and trends of philosophical ethics. The foundations of duty have been connected with the interpretation of moral necessity—the fulfillment of divine commands, cosmic or supernatural laws, official or unofficial social precepts, or self-realization of the internal potential of the personality.

In Marxist ethics, moral duty is regarded as the concretization of general requirements of morality, which have a historical origin and which pertain to existing circumstances, conditions, and a person’s abilities and potentials. These requirements determine the conditions and degree of his responsibility and constitute his motives and conscience. Thus, duty expresses the moral specifics of the socio-ideological position of personality with respect to the existing social situation and to the conflict and disposition of class forces, as well as the moral specifics of internal convictions and the means of their realization.

REFERENCES

Marx, K., and F. Engels. “Nemetskaia ideologiia.” Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 3, pp. 235-36.
Lenin, V. I. “Gosudarstvo i revoliutsiia.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 33, chap. 5.
Lenin, V. I. “Zadachi soiuzov molodezhi.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 41.
Arkhangel’skii, L. M. Kategorii marksistskoi etiki. Moscow, 1963.

O. G. DROBNITSKII

What does it mean when you dream about duty?

To feel bound by duty in a dream may be a reflection of the dreamer’s past experiences in the military. If, however, the dreamer is overly concerned with duty in their dreams, perhaps compulsive behavior or control issues are posing problems.

duty

1. a government tax, esp on imports
2. Brit
a. the quantity or intensity of work for which a machine is designed
b. a measure of the efficiency of a machine
References in periodicals archive ?
Lansdowne Road season ticket holders will be given first option on tickets with the FAI also duty bound to supply tickets to players and sponsors.
He directed the hospital administration to provide uniforms to the staff performing security duties and also make them duty bound to immediately reach at the troubled area in case of any untoward situation.
We expect the Armed Forces to put their lives on the line so, as a country, we are duty bound to care for them.
A spokesman for the force said officers were duty bound to investigate.
Duty bound Tie the side shoots of climbers to train them along trellis or wire supports, but keep the binds loose enough to allow the plant to sway in the wind.
According to BBC, under the terms of Suarez's deal, the club is duty bound to consider any offer for him in excess of 40 million pounds and then inform the 26-year-old of it but they do not have to sell and have now rejected two bids from Arsenal.
Ministers are duty bound to sort out the country's finances and union leaders are duty bound to protect the interests of their members - but, above all, both are duty bound to work together to ensure the country avoids slipping into an abyss of widespread economic turmoil and, heaven forbid, civil disorder.
Firstly, if you bring players in and go above budget, then as a manager you are duty bound to try and balance things up.
Chief Inspector Ray Hughes, head of Welsh Language Services in North Wales Police said: "We are duty bound, as a public body, to provide bilingual services.
My advice to them was they are duty bound under the terms of their contracts to turn up for work.
It becomes clear from facts emerging today that the financial debt owed by the Coventry Hospital Trust to the regional health authority is so immense that hospital managers are duty bound to dance to the tune played by regional officials, whether they like it or not.
Twenty-four hours when we are duty bound to be proud, preening and perkily pugnacious because we live in the very heart of England - the finest country in the world.