The time-average dynamic topography, relative to the GRACE geoid, appears in Fig.
The ageostrophic flow was calculated as the 5-m total flow minus the geostrophic component from the mean dynamic topography in Fig.
Stenseng, 2015: The DTU13 MSS (mean sea surface) and MDT (mean dynamic topography) from 20 years of satellite altimetry.
Part 1: Active scalar fields: Temperature, salinity, dynamic topography, mixed-layer depth, bottom pressure.
Rio, 2011: A global mean dynamic topography and ocean circulation estimation using a preliminary GOCE gravity model.
Galperin, 2009: Mean dynamic topography of the ocean derived from satellite and drifting buoy data using three different techniques.
Moucha's findings show that the jagged shoreline may have been caused by the interplay between the Earth's surface and its mantle-a process known as dynamic topography. Advanced modeling suggests that the shoreline, referred to as the Orangeburg Scarp, may have shifted as much as 196 feet.
"Dynamic topography is a very important contributor to Earth's surface evolution.