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generator, in electricity, machine used to change mechanical energy into electrical energy. It operates on the principle of electromagnetic induction, discovered (1831) by Michael Faraday. When a conductor passes through a magnetic field, a voltage is induced across the ends of the conductor. The generator is simply a mechanical arrangement for moving the conductor and leading the current produced by the voltage to an external circuit, where it actuates devices that require electricity. In the simplest form of generator the conductor is an open coil of wire rotating between the poles of a permanent magnet. During a single rotation, one side of the coil passes through the magnetic field first in one direction and then in the other, so that the induced current is alternating current (AC), moving first in one direction, then in the other. Each end of the coil is attached to a separate metal slip ring that rotates with the coil. Brushes that rest on the slip rings are attached to the external circuit. Thus the current flows from the coil to the slip rings, then through the brushes to the external circuit. In order to obtain direct current (DC), i.e., current that flows in only one direction, a commutator is used in place of slip rings. The commutator is a single slip ring split into left and right halves that are insulated from each other and are attached to opposite ends of the coil. It allows current to leave the generator through the brushes in only one direction. This current pulsates, going from no flow to maximum flow and back again to no flow. A practical DC generator, with many coils and with many segments in the commutator, gives a steadier current. There are also several magnets in a practical generator. In any generator, the whole assembly carrying the coils is called the armature, or rotor, while the stationary parts constitute the stator. Except in the case of the magneto, which uses permanent magnets, AC and DC generators use electromagnets. Field current for the electromagnets is most often DC from an external source. The term dynamo is often used for the DC generator; the generator in automotive applications is usually a dynamo. An AC generator is called an alternator. To ease various construction problems, alternators have a stationary armature and rotating electromagnets. Most alternators produce a polyphase AC, a complex type of current that provides a smoother power flow than does simple AC. By far the greatest amount of electricity for industrial and civilian use comes from large AC generators driven by steam turbines.
the oldest all-Union society for physical culture and sports in the USSR.
Dynamo was founded in Moscow in 1923 at the initiative of F. E. Dzerzhinskii (the honorary chairman of the society). By 1928, Dynamo had branches in nearly all oblast centers. Since the very first years of its existence Dynamo has been making an important contribution to the development of all popular sports. Contributing significantly to the emergence of Soviet sports in the 1920’s and 1930’s were members of the Dynamo society, including N. G. Ozolin (track and field); K. I. Aleshina (swimming); B. I. Novikov (tennis); M. P. Butusov and S. S. Il’in (soccer); A. V. Bukharov and N. I. Shatov (weightlifting); P. G. Shugaev and V. I. Odnoletkov (shooting); B. N. Astaf’ev (gymnastics); K. V. Gradopolov and V. P. Mikhailov (boxing); and P. A. Ippolitov (seating).
As of 1971, Dynamo was involved in 45 different sports. It managed nearly 6,000 athletic facilities, including more than 700 major facilities and 46 enterprises producing sporting goods. For the physical education of children and teen-agers there are the Young Dynamo groups and specialized athletic schools for children and youth (43 schools as of 1971). By Jan. 1, 1971, Dynamo had trained more than 10,000 Masters of Sport, nearly 400 Masters of Sport International Class, 480 Honored Masters of Sport, 125 Honored Trainers of the USSR, and 552 referees of the all-Union category. Dynamo sportsmen have won the title of champion of the USSR more than 3,500 times; the championship of Europe 283 times; the world championship 310 times; a gold medal at the Olympic Games 62 times. They have set 718 USSR, 60 European, and 156 world records. The Moscow Dynamo soccer team has been national champion ten times and holder of the USSR Cup four times; Kiev Dynamo is a four-time national champion and three-time winner of the USSR Cup. The Moscow Dynamo field hockey team has been national champion 11 times, while the ice hockey team has triumphed twice. The Dynamo water polo team (Moscow) has won the USSR championship eight times. The Dynamo women’s volleyball team (Moscow) has been USSR champion several times and a winner of the European Championship Cup. At the Fifth Spartakiad of the peoples of the USSR in 1971, Dynamo placed first amongst sport societies.
From the 1940’s to the beginning of the 1970’s, Dynamo sportsmen who have been national, European, world, and Olympic champions have made significant contributions to the development of sports in the Soviet Union. These include M. V. Semichastnyi, A. P. Khomich, and L. I. lashin (soc•cer); O. M. Korkiia and N. D. Maksimil’ianova (basketball); D. S. Buldakova and A. G. Chudina (volleyball); I. G. Artamonova, M. G. Isakova, R. M. Zhukova, O. G. Goncharenko, and V. I. Kosichkin (skating); I. A . Novikov (modern pentathlon); N. la. Dumbadze, E. I. Sechenova, I. N. Press, and V. D. Saneev (track and field); A. P. Kol-china and V. P. Vedenin (skiing); A. I. Tikhonov (biathlon); G. E. Gorokhova, A. I. Zabelina, E. D. Belova, and A. V. Nikanchikov (fencing); A. I. Metreveli (tennis); O. L. Pkhakadze (bicycling); V. V. Popenchenko (boxing); M. Ia. Voronin, L. L. Petrik, and L. I. Turishcheva (gymnastics); G. I. Ivanchenko (weightlifting); L. A. Pakhomova and A. G. Gorshkov (figure skating); P. la. Mshvenieradze (water polo); P. S. Avilov and G. G. Kosykh (shooting); I. I. Kotkas and M. G. Lomidze (wrestling); and V. S. Davydov (hockey). The leading trainers in the country have worked in Dynamo, including A. I. Chernyshev and V. D. Trofimov (hockey); K. I. Beskov (soccer); I. I. Manaenko (fencing); N. I. Malin (water polo); P. K. Kolchin (skiing); and V. D. Dmitriev (gymnastics).
In 1937, Dynamo was awarded the Order of Lenin. More than 300 Dynamoists have received awards from the government for achievements in sport.
A. A. KUPRIIANOV
Versions include DYNAMO II, DYNAMO II/370, DYNAMO II/F, DYNAMO III and Gaming DYNAMO.
["DYNAMO User's Manual", A.L. Pugh, MIT Press 1976].