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Difficult or painful menstruation.



disturbances of menstruation, characterized by pains in the lower abdomen, the small of the back, and the sacrum (algomenorrhea), combined with general symptoms (migraine, heart palpitations, vomiting, diarrhea, skin rashes, and sleep disturbance).

Primary dysmenorrhea occurs in women with no previous gynecological disease, most often in young girls and young women who have not given birth. This dysmenorrhea often ceases with a regular sex life and especially after parturition. Secondary dysmenorrhea appears as a result of inflammatory processes, the development of tumors in the woman’s sex organs, version of the uterus, and so on. Dysmenorrhea may develop as a result of psychological shock associated with the onset of the first menstruation in uninformed young girls, when there is a long-unfulfilled desire to become pregnant, and in cases of unsatisfactory sex life. Sometimes dysmenorrhea arises owing to the functional characteristics of a woman’s nervous system (vagotonic form). A special form of dysmenorrhea is membranous dysmenorrhea, which is associated with hormonal disharmony (the preponderance of estrogen over the hormone of the corpus luteum).

Treatment depends on the causes of the dysmenorrhea and its form. General restorative treatment, pain relievers, sedatives, hormone therapy, and physical therapy are prescribed.

References in periodicals archive ?
Regarding the relationship of dysmenorrhoea with infertility, there is a strong supportive correlation as evidenced by the occurrence of dysmenorrhoea in 84% cases in this study.
Common symptoms among girls with dysmenorrhoea were sleeplessness, nervousness, and acne among the rural population; irritability, headache, and acne among the urban population.
Secondary dysmenorrhoea is period pain caused by an underlying disorder It usually begins later in life.
Conclusion: Ginger is effective in minimising the pain severity in primary dysmenorrhoea.
A randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea.
Primary is a menstrual pain without any organic pathology (4) The initial onset of primary dysmenorrhoea is usually at or shortly after menarche, when ovulatory cycles are established.
We found there was a significant difference in the severity of dysmenorrhoea depending on whether or not the women used combined oral contraceptives.
We evaluated 45 women with primary dysmenorrhoea aged between 16 and 39 years.
An exploratory Phase II trial of VA111913 in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea (painful periods) showed promising evidence of reduced pain levels in patients receiving the drug candidate.