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see indigestionindigestion
or dyspepsia,
discomfort during or after eating caused by some interference with the normal digestive process. Symptoms include nausea, heartburn, abdominal pain, gas distress, and a feeling of abdominal distention.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



disturbances in digestion, varied in origin.

As distinct nosological forms of gastrointestinal diseases have increasingly been distinguished, the term “dyspepsia” has been reserved predominantly for syndromes of functional disturbance of the intestinal tract—putrefactive and fermentative dyspepsia. The term “dyspeptic symptoms” continues to be used in relation to various symptoms of functional disturbance of the stomach—belching, heartburn, nausea, and heaviness in the region of the stomach.

The basis of fermentative dyspepsia is increased motility of the small intestine, so that some carbohydrates are not digested and absorbed. Overloading the digestive organs with carbohydrates and plant cellulose (alimentary dyspepsia) is important here; it is manifested by distention and bulging of the stomach, loud rumbling and gurgling, coliclike pains, excessive gas, and liquid or pulpy stools.

Putrefactive dyspepsia is the result of an intensification of putrefactive processes in the large, and partially in the small, intestine. When there is a disturbance of the secretions of gastrointestinal digestion and a decrease in the bactericidal action of gastric juice (deficiency or absence of acidity in the stomach contents), the abundant microflora of the lower part of the small intestine settle in its upper part. A decisive role is played by an increase in the secretion of intestinal juice, which is rich in proteins and is the basic substrate for the putrefactive processes. Intestinal hypersecretion is most often caused by inflammations of the intestine. This may occur as an acute illness or chronically. It is manifested by persistent diarrhea—the stools are liquid, dark in color, and, along with gas, have an unpleasant odor.

The condition is treated by an appropriate diet, the introduction of increased quantities of vitamins C, PP, B1, and B2, and adsorbent and anti-inflammatory agents.


Infantile dyspepsia is an acute disturbance of digestion in children occurring predominantly during infancy. The anatomic and physiological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract peculiar to children during the first year of life (insufficient fermentative activity of the stomach, intestine, and pancreas) create the conditions that readily lead to digestive disturbances. Weakened infants are most often stricken. The disease occurs in simple or toxic forms.

Simple infantile dyspepsia is caused chiefly by an alimentary factor (overfeeding, rapid transition to artificial feeding, food of inappropriate content). As a result of careless feeding, the digestive process is distorted, food is incompletely broken down, fermentative processes are intensified, and the stomach and duodenum become populated with colon bacilli, so that bacterial digestion replaces fermentative digestion. The infant begins to regurgitate and to have diarrhea. Stools (up to ten times a day) are watery and greenish with white clumps. The infant’s general condition, however, is hardly disturbed. An increase of gas in the intestine causes abdominal distention and coliclike pains. Complications, such as otitis, pyelitis, and pneumonia, are possible if the condition persists. The basic treatment consists in decreasing the volume of food by replacing one or two feedings with an equal volume of liquid and limiting the volume intake by 40-50 percent. Enzymes and vitamins are also prescribed.

Toxic infant dyspepsia is a severe form of the disease characterized by profound disturbance of all types of metabolism and of the functions of many organs and systems. It arises through disruption of the feeding regime and bacterial invasion. It is manifested by persistent vomiting and watery stools (up to 15 times a day). As a result of the great loss of water from vomiting and diarrhea, body weight decreases sharply, exsiccosis (dehydration) develops, and the toxic products of metabolism accumulate, affecting the central nervous, autonomic, and cardiovascular systems and causing disturbances of blood circulation, respiration, and liver and kidney functions. Complications are common (stomatitides, otitides, mastoiditides, pneumonia). A water and tea diet for 10-15 hours is recommended in treatment, with subsequent measured feeding (for infants in the first months of life, breast milk). Intravenous and subcutaneous injection of saline solutions of glucose, blood plasma, and antibiotics are also used.

Strict observance of a proper feeding schedule, a balanced nutritional regime, and general care help to prevent the condition.


Maslov, M. S. Lektsii po fakul’tetskoi pediatrii, part 1. Leningrad, 1963. Pages 18-43.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Disturbed digestion.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


, dyspepsy
indigestion or upset stomach
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Comparison of severity and frequency of every dyspeptic symptom in postprandial distress syndrome between treatment and control group
Hamrah et al., "Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic patients in Andkhoy Afghanistan," Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol.
A total of 201 dyspeptic patients were included in the study, and serum and stool samples were analyzed by dBest H.
In our study, bile reflux was found in 52% of the non-ulcer dyspeptic symptoms, out of which 56.7% had chronic inflammation on histopathology and only 9% out of them had previous gall bladder surgery and none of them had gastric surgery.
Although its diagnosis in adults is difficult due to atypical presentation, intestinal malrotation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with recurrent abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, and dyspeptic complaints.
Depression is highly prevalent in general Pakistani population as well as in dyspeptic patients.
This study seeks to reduce this knowledge gap by characterising the burden of dyspepsia in a presumed well, clearly defined sample of healthcare workers (HCWs) in Rwanda, to provide an accurate measure of the frequency and distribution of dyspeptic symptoms among a community-representative sample, and the quality-of-life costs associated with their symptoms.
Gastric hypochlorhydria is associated with an exacerbation of dyspeptic symptoms in female patients.
Dyspeptic complaints from the upper gastrointestinal tract such as epigastric pain, burning or discomfort were revealed in 41 of these patients (approximately 40%).
The study involved 50 patients experiencing dyspeptic symptoms such as upper abdominal pain, heartburn, indigestion and bloating and 30 patients with symptoms such as nasal congestion, nasal discharge and sneezing, who were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis according to ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) [8] criteria.
pylori strains were isolated from the patients with dyspeptic symptoms and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for MTZ was assessed by E-test.
pylori positivity is ranging from 74-84% in dyspeptic patients using gastric biopsy but these studies were done in all dyspeptic patients not just in functional dyspepsia patients.23,24In a Dutch working population, on the other hand, Schlemper et al reported that anti-H.