Dyspnea


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dyspnea

[′dis·nē·ə]
(medicine)
Difficult or labored breathing.

Dyspnea

 

disruption of the rate and depth of respiration, accompanied by the sensation of shortness of breath.

Cardiac patients experience dyspnea both while physically exerting themselves and while subsequently resting in the horizontal position. Their condition is complicated by orthopnea, the inability to breathe except in a sitting position. In patients with cardiac diseases, attacks of severe dyspnea, which usually occur at night, are a symptom of cardiac asthma. In such cases, the dyspnea is inspiratory; that is, the patient finds it difficult to inhale. Expiratory dyspnea, difficulty in exhaling, arises when the lumina of the small bronchi and bronchioles are narrowed, as in bronchial asthma. It also arises when the elasticity of the lung tissue is lost, as in chronic emphysema of the lungs. Cerebral dyspnea is a result of direct irritation of the cerebral respiratory center by such abnormalities as tumors and hemorrhages.

References in periodicals archive ?
Causes of exertional dyspnea with hypoxia in a young athlete (with healthy lungs) are typically related to vascular abnormalities usually resulting in right-to-left shunting or large ventilation-perfusion defects (functional right-to-left shunt).
Furthermore, dyspnea was a significant predictor of fatigue and mental component summary of SF-36, whereas HRCT had no significant contribution to functional status, fatigue, and SF-36.
A 31 -year-old woman presented with dyspnea and a 2-day history of bilateral parotid swelling.
24), (25) To our knowledge, no studies to date have examined the differences in dyspnea, fatigue, and exercise intolerance between individuals with HF having high and low muscle strength of the knee extensors as measured by hand-held dynamometry.
Inspiratory resistive loading is frequently used in dyspnea research to increase the effort and work of breathing (12-18).
Dyspnea at rest implies an acute illness or moderate to severe cardiopulmonary disease.
The final clinical model included age, sex, history of HF, creatinine concentration, dyspnea (New York Heart Association class IV or less), systolic blood pressure, and LVEF.
Moderate Exacerbation - Patients having a moderate exacerbation experience dyspnea that interferes and limits their ability to perform physical activity.
A recent study examined the predictive value of assessing four clinical variables in diagnosing HF as the cause of dyspnea in these patients: 1) history of ischemic heart disease, 2) laterally displaced apical heart beat (PMI), 3) high body mass index, and 4) increased heart rate.
Cancer-related dyspnea may or may not reverse with treatment; irreversible cases must be treated with palliative therapies.
The most common adverse events (grades 3/4) with ALIMTA for the treatment of patients with NSCLC were anemia (8%); leukopenia (5%); neutropenia (5%); thrombocytopenia (2%); infection without neutropenia (6%); fatigue (16%); thrombosis/embolism (3%); cardiac ischemia (3%); anorexia (5%); dyspnea (18%); and chest pain (7%).