even

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even

1. 
a. (of a number) divisible by two
b. characterized or indicated by such a number
2. Maths (of a function) unchanged in value when the sign of the independent variable is changed, as in y = z2
3. even money
a. a bet in which the winnings are the same as the amount staked
b. (as modifier): the even-money favourite

Even

 

(also Lamut), the language of the Evens (Lamut). According to the 1970 census, Even is spoken by approximately 7,000 people along the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk and in neighboring regions. Together with Evenki and Negidal, it belongs to the northern group of the Manchu-Tungus languages. It has three dialect groups: eastern, western, and central. The eastern group includes the Ola dialect, on which the literary language is based.

Even is an agglutinative language in which grammatical relationships are expressed by the addition of suffixes to word stems. The Ola dialect distinguishes 18 consonants and up to 20 vowel phonemes, including ia and ie (phonemes that incorporate a glide whose articulation resembles that of the phoneme’s primary, syllabic, element). Even exhibits palatal and labial vowel harmony. There are 13 nominal (noun) cases and a ramified system of possessive forms, which express personal, reflexive, and alienable possession.

Verbs are classified by conjugational features as verbs of action, verbs of state, and inchoative verbs. There are more than 15 aspects and six voices of the verb, as well as six participial forms, eight forms of adverbial participles, and negative and interrogative verbs. The attribute precedes the modified word and agrees with it in number and case. The vocabulary of the western dialects shows the influence of Yakut and Yukaghir, and the dialects of Kamchatka have undergone the influence of Koriak; Russian words began entering the Even language in the 17th century.

A Latin writing system was devised in 1931 and was used until 1936, when a Cyrillic alphabet was introduced.

REFERENCES

Tsintsius, V. I. Ocherk grammatiki evenskogo (lamutskogo) iazyka, part 1. Leningrad, 1947.
Tsintsius, V. I., and L. D. Rishes. Russko-evenskii slovar’ (s prilozheniem grammaticheskogo ocherka). Moscow, 1952.
Benzing, J. Lamutische Grammatik mit Bibliographie, Sprachproben und Glossar. Wiesbaden, 1955.

E. A. KHELIMSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Neron offre desormais le triste tableau d'un tyran amoureux, lui-meme en prise avec la tyrannie du sentiment : << Narcisse, e'en est fait, Neron est amoureux.
My Father gave In charge to me This child of earth E'en from its birth, To serve and save, Alleluia, And saved is he.
It's the bit which goes: "E'en so here below, below/ Let steeple bells be swungen./ And i-o, i-o, i-o/ By priests and people sungen."
No scratch or stain was on his manly face, Nor o'er his raiment e'en the smell of fire.
Poor POET-APE, that would be thought our chief, Whose works are e'en the frippery of wit, From brokage is become so bold a thief, As we, the robb'd, leave rage, and pity it.
"Halloween comes from 'All Hallows' E'en,' the Christian festival commemorating All Saints or those who have died and gone ahead of us into the heavenly realms.
They call me through this hush of woods, reposing In the grey stillness of the summer morn, They wander by when heavy flowers are closing, And thoughts grow deep, and winds and stars are born; Ev'n as a fount's remember'd gushings burst On the parch'd traveller in his hour of thirst, E'en thus they haunt me with sweet sounds, till worn By quenchless longings, to my soul I say--Oh!
The heart lightened, the mind at ease, grasping at the absolving cup of salvation, the contrite, the dying Laurette, in the forgiving spirit of true piety, blessed e'en the author of her guilt, and pronounced the balm of universal pardon.
--Thomas Randolph (1605-1635) If we turn to Britten's single songs we find a "nighttime" poem by Thomas Moore from his Irish Melodies: "At the mid hour of night (Molly, my dear)." At midnight, the poet hungers for a visit or a sign from his departed love to "tell me if our love is remembered e'en in the sky." This is a lovely evocation of the final sleep--a folk-like setting with a bardic feeling in its repeated phrases.
"What most this wondrous beast is like Is mighty plain," quoth he; "'T is clear enough the Elephant Is very like a tree!" The Fifth, who chanced to touch the ear, Said: "E'en the blindest man Can tell what this resembles most; Deny the fact who can, This marvel of an Elephant Is very like a fan!" The Sixth no sooner had begun About the beast to grope, Than, seizing on the swinging tail That fell within his scope, "I see," quoth he, "the Elephant Is very like a rope!" And so these men of Indostan Disputed loud and long, Each in his own opinion Exceeding stiff and strong, Though each was partly in the right, And all were in the wrong ...