In addition to food rations, refugees were provided with e-cash
to purchase their own food to add diversity and choice to their diet.
We adopt e-cash
payment pattern, which includes the communications among P, D, OTN, and TPP:
Based on the majority of the existing approaches, we summarize that a secure e-cash
system should satisfy the following requirements.
Comparison of important features among fair-exchange e-payment protocols Protocol/ Ray et Oniz et Lin-Liu Alaraj-Munro Ours Property al. al.  a Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes b Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes c Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes d Yes Yes Yes No Yes e No No No No Yes f No Yes No No No g Yes No Yes No No h Yes Yes * Yes Yes No a: True fairness b: Automated dispute resolution c: Product validation d: Customer Anonymity e: Customer Unlinkability f: Implementation requirement for Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) g: Implementation requirement for e-cash
system h: Storage requirement for decryption keys on the arbiter Yes Oniz et al.'s protocol requires few keys for dispute resolution on the arbiter by using key chain *: mechanism.
card is available to all corporates in Oman and the top-up facility will be available at BankMuscat branches.
Currency Medium of exchange Yes Yes Checking deposits Medium of exchange Yes Yes E-cash
E-briefcase Yes Yes Stored-value cards E-wallet Yes Yes Checks Permit No No E-checks E-Permit No No Debit cards ID/Permit No No Credit cards ID/IOU No No Money orders Receipts No No Cashier checks Receipts No No Traveler's checks Receipts No No
Secondly, there is no reason why a central bank cannot issue e-cash
instead of paper cash if e-money substitutes cash.(9)
Three categories, Financial Services (banking, stocks e-cash
and shares), Navigation/Location (excluding modules and telematics) and Entertainment (online/download, games, audio and video), with widely different 1999 user counts, are all expected to grow sharply and enjoy somewhat the same number of users in 2005.
Talk of e-commerce and e-cash
inevitably raises the question: Will paper money--like the adding machine--one day become obsolete?
The latest wave of e-cash
companies promises to help purveyors of these low-ticket items increase their sales volume by making it easier for customers to pay for their orders.
Funds are stored in electronic form on either cards-"stored-valued cards"-or on computers-" e-cash
." Stored-value cards can be either multipurpose (open-system) cards that are used to make a variety of payments or single-purpose (closed-system) cards that are used more narrowly.
20/20 investigates the growing phenomenon of e-cash
, e-wealth and easy living.