Let us define now the normalized earth electrode resistance [R.sub.norm], by dividing the right-hand side of (19) by a quantity having the dimension of resistance, namely [([pi][[sigma].sub.0]a).sup.-1].
Taking the limit of [R.sub.norm] for [lambda] [right arrow] [infinity], an already reported in the scientific literature (Nemoianu, 1964) formula of the earth electrode resistance in the uniform [[sigma].sub.0] conductivity case is obtained:
The durability of an earth electrode backfilled with PKOC can be expected to be high due to its relatively low acid content.
This significant change is attributed to indirectly extending the cross sectional area of the earth electrode by the PKOC, ability of the PKOC to absorb moisture and the presence of charge carriers in the form of ions in the slightly acidity of the PKOC.
Step 3: Earth electrode resistances at various sites were improved by installing additional earth rod electrodes and backfilling the critical resistance area of the electrodes with low resistivity soil .
& Eduful, G.: Reducing earth electrode resistance by replacing soil in critical resistance area, International Journal of Modern Engineering Technology, volume 6, number 2, spring 2006
Kii = 1/([2n.sup.n/2]) for grids with no earth electrodes
on the comers or on the perimeter