sweat

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sweat

or

perspiration,

fluid secreted by the sweat glands of mammalian skin and containing water, salts, and waste products of body metabolism such as urea. The dissolved solid content of sweat is only one eighth that of an equal volume of urine, the body's main vehicle of salt excretion; however, excessive sweating may produce severe salt loss (see heat exhaustionheat exhaustion,
condition caused by overexposure to sunlight or another heat source and resulting in dehydration and salt depletion, also known as heat prostration. The symptoms are severe headaches, weakness, dizziness, blurred vision, and sometimes unconsciousness.
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). Human sweat glands are of two types, eccrine and apocrine. The eccrine glands, found everywhere on the body surface, are vital to the regulation of body temperature. Evaporation of the sweat secreted by the eccrines cools the body, dissipating the heat generated by metabolic processes. The release of such sweat is usually imperceptible; yet even in cool weather an individual will lose from 1 pt to 3 qt of fluid per day. Only when environmental conditions are especially hot or humid, or during periods of exercise or emotional stress, does the output of sweat exceed the rate of evaporation, so that noticeable beads of moisture appear on the skin. When such conditions are extreme, the body may lose up to 20 qt of fluid per day. Production of sweat is controlled by the temperature-regulating center of the hypothalamus. The apocrine glands, which occur only in the armpits and about the ears, nipples, navel, and anogenital region, are scent glands. They function in response to stress or sexual stimulation, playing no part in temperature regulation. The apocrines exude a sticky fluid quite different from the watery sweat of the eccrines. Apocrine fluid is rich in organic substances that are odorless when fresh but are quickly degraded by bacteria on the skin to produce characteristic odors. Copious sweating in the armpits comes not from the apocrines but from the eccrines interspersed among them.

Sweat

 

a colorless, slightly opalescent fluid secreted by the sweat glands.

Human sweat contains 98 to 99 percent water, about 0.1 percent urea, uric acid, creatinine, serine, fats, volatile fatty acids, cholesterol, and alkaline metal salts, including chlorides (NaCl predominates— about 0.3 percent), phosphates, and sulfates, as well as sulfuric acid esters and aromatic oxygen acids. The secretion of the sebaceous glands is always mixed with the sweat that gathers on the skin surface. The composition of sweat depends on the condition of the body, the intensity of sweat excretion, and the presence of various substances in the blood. Sweat may be acid, with a pH of 3.8–6.2, or alkaline, when there is decomposition of urea and production of ammonia. In man from 0.5 to 10 liters of sweat or more per day are excreted, depending on intensity of muscle work, temperature of the external environment, and the quantity of water imbibed. Thus, with heavy muscle work, sweat contains a significant quantity of lactic acid and nitrogenous substances. In pathological states, sweat may contain glucose (sugar diabetes), bile pigments, cystine (cystinuria), and sometimes erythrocytes (bloody sweat).

sweat

[swet]
(chemistry)
Exudation of nitroglycerin from dynamite due to separation of nitroglycerin from its adsorbent.
(metallurgy)
Exudate of low-melting-point constituents from a metal on solidification.
(physiology)
The secretion of the sweat glands. Also known as perspiration.
(science and technology)
Formation of moisture beads on a surface as a result of concentration.

sweat

1. the secretion from the sweat glands, esp when profuse and visible, as during strenuous activity, from excessive heat, etc.; commonly also called perspiration
2. Chiefly US an exercise gallop given to a horse, esp on the day of a race
References in periodicals archive ?
This supports previous findings that blood glucose is a major energy source used by eccrine sweat glands (5,6).
Since it is assumed that glucose uptake in eccrine sweat glands is the result of facilitated diffusion, hyperglycemia could increase delivery to the interior of the cells.
In patients with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis syndrome, absense of sense of pain and heat is related with absence of nerve supply of the fibers which conduct the sense of pain and of the eccrine sweat glands (3).
In the literature, nerve supply of the eccrine sweat glands have been found histopathologically in some patients despite a negative pilocarpine iontophoresis test (2).
As mentioned earlier, chondroid syringomas may originate either from apocrine or eccrine sweat glands, or they may evolve from entrapped ectopic cell rests of embrylogic origin stimulated to proliferate by an unknown factor.
Human skin is rich with millions of eccrine sweat glands that help your body cool down after a trip to the gym or on a warm day.
Histopathology revealed a polypoid mass lined with keratinized squamous epithelium overlying thickened fibrovascular tissue containing abortive pilosebaceous units and profiles of eccrine sweat glands and ducts (figure 2).
The eccrine sweat glands (about 75% of the total) are located all over the skin except the lips and a few other small sites are active at birth and release a clear, watery fluid into the skin.
xSkin biopsy was done--it showed thin and flattened epidermis with rudimentary eccrine sweat glands.
Histopathology of the skin showed rudimentary and decreased number of eccrine sweat glands, which confirmed the diagnosis of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.
Ductal eccrine carcinoma is a rare tumor that arises in the eccrine sweat glands.
Racial differences in the distribution and number of eccrine sweat glands may be another factor for this difference.