echo sounder


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echo sounder,

an older instrumentation system for indirectly determining ocean floor depth. Echo sounding is based on the principle that water is an excellent medium for the transmission of sound waves and that a sound pulse will bounce off a reflecting layer, returning to its source as an echo. The time interval between the initiation of a sound pulse and echo returned from the bottom can be used to determine the depth of the bottom. An echo-sounding system consists of a transmitter, a receiver that picks up the reflected echo, electronic timing and amplification equipment, and an indicator or graphic recorder. The first patent for an echo-sounding device was granted in 1907. The Fathometer, a registered trademark often loosely applied to all depth-sounding gear, was developed (1914) as a result of research by the Canadian engineer R. A. Fessenden in the application of echo-sounding principles to iceberg detection. Application of echo-sounding principles to submarine detection during World War II resulted in the development of equipment to sound all ocean depths. In 1954 an advanced, highly accurate echo sounder called the precision depth recorder (PDR) was developed. By the early 1960s, the U.S. Navy used the new technique of Sonar Array Survey System (SASS). The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has recently used an unclassified version of SASS, Sea Beam, to map more detailed representations of the seafloor. Sea Beam employs an array of sound transducers across the hull of the survey vessel which radiate sound in a swathe, thereby allowing a wide region of the seafloor to be mapped. This type of swathe-mapping technology is now the norm for seafloor mapping. Another sonar instrument called SeaMARC uses a torpedo-shaped "fish" to measure the strength of sound signals, rather than the elapsed time of the returning signals, and covers larger areas of the ocean floor.

echo sounder

[′ek·ō ‚sau̇nd·ər]
(engineering)

echo sounder

a navigation and position-finding device that determines depth by measuring the time taken for a pulse of high-frequency sound to reach the sea bed or a submerged object and for the echo to return
References in periodicals archive ?
Technological advances are also increasing the range of instrument parameters available to the field user of equipment such as multibeam echo sounders. Proper selection of these parameters requires an understanding of how the MBES interacts with a particular environment.
3-4), which typically coincided with twilight hours, presence of subsurface features, variable coastal terrain (i.e., rock, ledge, river mouth), or an increased abundance of prey species (observed from the echo sounder and confirmed by hook and line).
The launch featured the first demonstration in the Middle East of the Kongsberg EM2040 Multibeam Echo Sounder, the first system to bring all the advanced features of deep water multibeams to the near bottom sounding environment.
The echo sounders estimated the distance to the bottom with the amplitude-based algorithm (with a threshold of -36 dB re 1 [m.sup.-1]) implemented in the echo sounder software (Simrad ER60, vers.
Figure 1 illustrates typical data provided by a sidescan sonar, subbottom profiler and echo sounder when operated over a pipeline.
Precise base maps for the dive expedition were assembled using a US Navy classified multi-beam echo sounder, a French narrow beam echo-sounding system, and a deeply towed instrument package from the Marine Physical Laboratory at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (University of California, San Diego).
The quality of the echo sounders used onboard the vessels and the results seemed to be within IHO Special standards.
"Fugro will use its vessel MV Fugro Equator which is equipped with a deep-water multi-beam echo sounder system and carries expert survey personnel to undertake the survey operations," according to JACC.
A BANK of computer screens, radar, an echo sounder, and a machine running MaxSea, a sophisticated piece of software that tracks fish across the oceans reveal where our prey is hiding.
The minehunter was participating in the multi-national exercise when its echo sounder revealed the sunken vessel lying 305 metres underwater, the Ministry of Defence said.
and the Maritime Institute in Gdansk, recently conducted what is believed to be the first North Sea pipeline in-service survey using a multi-beam echo sounder (MBES).