There should be 3 or more of the following 12 findings for the diagnosis of catatonia (4) Stupor (no psychomotor activity, not actively relating to the environment) Catalepsy (passive induction of a posture held against gravity) Waxy flexibility (resistance to positioning by the examiner) Mutism (no or very little verbal response) Negativism (no response to external stimuli) Posturing (maintenance of a posture against gravity) Mannerism (caricature of normal actions) Stereotype (abnormally frequent and repetitive, non-goal-directed movements) Agitation Grimacing Echolalia
(mimicking other's speech) Echopraxia (mimicking other's movements)
One potential reason for the observed difference in skill accuracy may be James' restricted language development (e.g., use of stereotyped language, echolalia
(8) note that he presented echolalia
and palilalia, manifested in his speeches and in 17.5% of his letters.
Our patient developed several manifestations of acute psychotic illness, including confusion, personality change, paranoid hallucinations, tangential speech, echolalia
, and ideas of reference, within a week of rapid correction of hyponatremia.
They also have repetitive speech disorder known as echolalia
and eventually lose their speech totally.
In the same period, more precisely in 1874, Karl Kahlbaum talks about catatonia, saying it is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by prominent motor features, objectified by immobility, mutism, negativism, rigidity, stereotypies, echolalia
There was a lot of echolalia
, but both the family and therapists were thrilled.
Upon transfer, he was lethargic and had moderate global aphasia and echolalia
, a left forehead-sparing facial droop, spasticity in the arms, diffuse hyperreflexia, and mute plantar responses.
This can be manifested in stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech (for example, simple motor stereotypes, lining up toys or flipping objects, echolalia
, idiosyncratic phrases).
Despite the portrayal in the popular media, it is particularly rare to have complex tics that include copropraxia (an obscene gesture), coprolalia (an obscene movement), echolalia
(repeating another's words), or echopraxia (repeating another's actions).
Regarding language skills specifically, Davis said pronunciation improves, appropriate use of language increases, emergence of new language (nouns, verbs, pronouns in that order; speaking about things happening in their environment at the time) takes place, and if echolalia
(repetition of another person's words or phrases) existed, it decreases.