eclecticism


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eclecticism

(ĭklĕk`tĭsĭz'əm), art style in which features are borrowed from various styles. It was once applied to the CarracciCarracci
, family of Italian painters of the Bolognese school, founders of an important academy of painting. Lodovico Carracci, 1555–1619, a pupil of Tintoretto in Venice, was influenced by Correggio and Titian. He also studied in Bologna, Padua, and Parma.
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, who incorporated elements from the Renaissance and classical traditions. Among the most influential advocates of eclecticism were Sir Joshua ReynoldsReynolds, Sir Joshua,
1723–92, English portrait painter, b. Devonshire. Long considered historically the most important of England's painters, by his learned example he raised the artist to a position of respect in England.
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 and John RuskinRuskin, John,
1819–1900, English critic and social theorist. During the mid-19th cent. Ruskin was the virtual dictator of artistic opinion in England, but Ruskin's reputation declined after his death, and he has been treated harshly by 20th-century critics.
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.

eclecticism

(ĭklĕk`tĭsĭz'əm) [Gr. eklektikos=to choose], in philosophy, the selection of elements from different systems of thought, without regard to possible contradictions between the systems. Eclecticism differs from syncretism, which tries to combine various systems while resolving conflicts. Many Roman philosophers, especially CiceroCicero
(Marcus Tullius Cicero) or Tully,
106 B.C.–43 B.C., greatest Roman orator, famous also as a politician and a philosopher. Life

Cicero studied law and philosophy at Rome, Athens, and Rhodes.
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, and the Neoplatonists were known for eclecticism. Eclecticism among Renaissance humanists, who drew from Christian and classical doctrines, was followed by a 19th-century revival, particularly with French philosopher Victor Cousin, who coined the term and applied it to his own system. Eclectics are frequently charged with being inconsistent, and the term is sometimes used pejoratively.

Eclecticism

The practice of selecting from various sources, sometimes to form a new style.

eclecticism

any approach to analysis or research which mixes theoretically disparate perspectives.

Eclecticism

 

in art and architecture, the combination of artistic elements of diverse origin; the phenomenon usually occurs during the period of decline of major artistic trends.

Elements of eclecticism are noticeable in late ancient Roman art, mainly in the combination of forms borrowed from Greece, Egypt, and Southwest Asia. The artists of the Bolognese school favored eclecticism, believing that they could attain artistic perfection by combining what in their opinion were the best aspects of works by the great masters of the Renaissance.

Eclecticism is characteristic of the architecture, especially the interior design, of the middle and second half of the 19th century, when different motifs were mixed indiscriminately, including those of the Renaissance and rococo styles; however, the eclecticism typical of 19th-century architecture and design, with their universal range of architectural and ornamental motifs, had a significant impact on the birth of art nouveau, which was essentially a distinct, integral style although influenced by the most diverse sources.

Eclecticism has remained typical of salon art. Eclectic trends became widely popular in Western European and American artistic culture of the mid–20th century as a result of the vogue for retrospective styles of artistic design, which copy stylistic trends of the past.

REFERENCE

Patetta, L. L’architettura dell’eclettismo: Fonti, teorii, modelli, 1750–1900. Milan, 1975.

Eclecticism

 

the combination of diverse views, ideas, and theories. The term was introduced in the second century by Pota-mon of Alexandria, who called his school eclectic. The sources of eclecticism lie in the substitution of one set of logical foundations for another. The shallowness and futility of such constructions have been noted by many philosophers, beginning with Socrates and Aristotle. The classics of Marxism-Leninism were sharply critical of eclecticism. V. I. Lenin pointed out the substitution of foundations—the undermining of the integrity of an object—that is a characteristic feature of eclecticism: “the substitution of eclecticism for dialectics is the easiest way of deceiving the people. It gives an illusory satisfaction; it seems to take into account all sides of the process, all trends of development, all the conflicting influences, and so forth, whereas in reality it provides no integral and revolutionary conception of the process of social development at all” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 33, p. 21).

Eclecticism

The selection of elements from diverse styles for architectural decorative designs, particularly during the second half of the 19th cent. in Europe and the US.
References in periodicals archive ?
Greenawalt's take on exclusions of religion illustrates some of eclecticism's virtues and vices: on the one hand, its capacity for extraordinary nuance and sensitivity and, on the other hand, its difficulty generating predictable results and guiding/restraining courts.
One of the major topics he identifies is eclecticism, which he defines as "the interaction, and maybe the reconciliation, of different cultural forms." (1) Eschewing the related term hybridity, Subramanyan dismisses the pejorative connotation of eclecticism, explaining that it not only is indicative of the modern multicultural situation but also can be an important tool in the renewal of culture.
In recent years, there has been increased literature in the field of mental health counseling regarding the merits and limitations of eclecticism (e.g., Blocher, 1989; Ginter, 1988, 1989a, 1989b, 1993, 1996; Harris, 1991; Hershenson, 1992; Hershenson, Power, & Seligman, 1989a, 1989b; Kelly, 1988, 1991; McBride & Martin, 1990; Nance & Meyers, 1991; Simon, 1991; Weinrach, 1991).
is here proposing the "reasoned eclecticism" that "takes its starting point from the assurance that Jesus Christ is Lord and Saviour, or, perhaps more informatively, from the Cross-resurrection event" (354).
From a top of the range LSA vase through to a jam jar hung with florist's wire - eclecticism is the watchword.
The debatable eclecticism was intended to honor Iraq's past while saving its future from the West's boxy International Style.
Joel demonstrates a compositional technique that quite often revels in attractive eclecticism. It is evident he has listened to and been influenced by piano music of every genre and musical period, but so much so that his own ideas seem overtly borrowed.
Instead of following in her parents footsteps, she embarked on a pop music career that never resulted in gold records or chart hits, but did garner her a reputation for wit, melodic sense, and stylistic eclecticism. Tropical Brainstorm followed an eight-year recording hiatus and is, in many ways, a heartbreaking album; MacColl died in Mexico in a tragic boating accident shortly after its completion, a fact that makes the songs' themes of happiness regained and of her love for the cultures of Mexico and Cuba almost unbearably poignant.
Is this eclecticism really a post-structuralist move in disguise?
Here Gandhi's religious "eclecticism" served him well: adopting the Christian idea of redemptive suffering, as consummated in the sacrifice of the Cross, gave Gandhi the rationale he needed to make the way of nonviolence not just merely a means to an end, but a morally valuable end in itself.
Kimball's Tenured Radicals: How Politics Has Corrupted Our Higher Education, first published in 1990 by Harper Collins, is one of the best known of the many critiques of the predicament of American higher education in the grip of what Kimball, with a term borrowed from Frederick Crews, calls 'left eclecticism': 'not identical to Marxism, exactly', but representing 'any of a wide variety of anti-establishment modes of thought'.
The capsule-appreciations, mostly by German journalists, accompanying the stills are for the most part spare and intelligently rendered, but the writing strains a bit when venturing to justify the high importance of films such as "Pretty Woman." There is also an element of muddled eclecticism (what imagined audience will be game to contemplate the wonders of both "Forrest Gump" and "The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie?") and the odd moment of Teutonic/American cultural disconnection (writes one contributor, "This much is certain: Wim Wenders makes `guy movies'").