Our results suggest that DVAs quantify the ecological interaction
between coexisting populations of humans and deer: geographic locations that have high DVAs should have a large number of human vehicle operators driving within the range of a concentrated deer population.
As molecular identification of Mycena associated with plant roots does not indicate an ecological interaction
per se, we will employ innovative research techniques designed to quantify potential interactions.
When the predator experiences some density dependence due to factors other than food, the magnitude of the negative ecological interaction
(apparent competition) may not be enough to outweigh the positive effect from evolution of the predator's food preference.
Each ecological interaction
, which is also potentially an agent of natural selection, may generate a unique relationship between some component of fitness (survival or fecundity schedules) and the phenotype (i.
Some long-held scenarios of ecological interaction
have not withstood closer scrutiny.
Among their topics are the role of chemically defended seaweeds as biodiversity sources, the role of floating plants in the dispersal of biota across habitats and ecosystems, the role of drifting algae for marine biodiversity, eutrophication and the challenge of changing biotic interactions, and ecological interactions
between marine plants and alien species.
Though these observations are limited to just 2 sites on a single occasion, we cannot rule out the possibility that ecological interactions
, such as differential predation or ecological displacement, between native and exotic centipedes are responsible for these observations.
This may change the direction and strength of ecological interactions
5AC and in concomitant atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, there are projected to be major changes in ecosystem structure and function, species' ecological interactions
, and species' geographical ranges, with predominantly negative consequences for biodiversity, and ecosystem goods and services e.
The author has conducted much of the primary research described in the book, including studies on movements and migrations, diving behaviour, feeding and predation, ecological interactions
, relationships with climatic and environmental conditions, reproduction, and harvest management.
Senna multijuga is also recognized as an important species for ecological interactions
, for instance, it is a notable host for cicadas, and therefore, armadillos commonly make holes in the base of its trunk looking for the nymphs (Carvalho 2004); its leaves, flowers and fruits are sources of food for the spider-monkey (Brachyteles arachnoids, Mendonca-Filho 1996) and its seeds are often damaged before dispersal by Bruchidae beetles (Sari & Ribeiro-Costa 2005, Sari et al.
These latest findings, according to Ho, indicate that studies of Bergmann's rule should consider ecological interactions
in addition to the more traditional theories of physiology based on responses to temperature.