Although not frequently identified, cervicitis characterized by petechial hemorrhages on the ectocervix
("strawberry cervix") may distinguish trichomoniasis from other causes of cervicitis.
Following parameters were recorded, that is, weight, measurements from fundus to ectocervix
, cornu to cornu, and anterior to posterior.
Squamous cell carcinoma can be thought of as similar to skin cancer because it begins on the surface of the ectocervix
. Adenocarcinoma begins further inside the uterus, in the mucus-producing gland cells of the endocervix .
The cervix is covered with a layer of skin-like cells on its outer surface, called the 'ectocervix
Defensins were reported to be present in ectocervix
, vagina, testis, epididymis, seminal plasma, sperm, and germ cells that impair with the metabolic processes of microbes by penetrating the microbial membranes [145, 146].
* The central bristles of the Cervex-Brush [R] are inserted into the endocervical canal so that the shorter, outer bristles fully contact the ectocervix
On examination with a speculum the ectocervix
appeared normal and examination per vaginum revealed a soft uterus of normal size with tenderness in the bilateral fornices.
Chemokine receptor expression in the human ectocervix
: implications for infection by the human immunodeficiency virus-type I.
He performed the Pap smears; however, as the surgery had closed off the endocervix, the spatula could reach only the ectocervix
and not the endocervix, which needed to be sampled.
For women, a cervical cytology (Papanicolaou [Pap]) smear was collected, and a swab and cytobrush were used to consecutively sample the ectocervix
and endocervix, including the transformation zone.
Genital tract secretions were collected from the endocervix, ectocervix
, and vagina in 40 of the women, and from the vagina only in 9 women who had previous hysterectomies.
Cervical ectopy develops during puberty when the columnar epithelium lining the endocervix extends onto the ectocervix
. The process of squamous metaplasia eventually causes differentiation of the columnar cells into squamous epithelium and leads to a mature-appearing cervix.