Minus a few exceptional cases, female Encarsia are primary endoparasitoids whereas males develop as ectophagous
hyperparasitoids on conspecific or heterospecific individuals including those of other genera (Walter 1983; Hunter & Woolley 2001).
Interactions between the rust fungus Puccinia punctiformis and ectophagous
and endophagous insects on creeping thistle.
1984; Rocca, 2010) and ectophagous
species (Kennedy & Southwood, 1984).
Of these insect species, the majority were native (72%), polyphagous (64%), and ectophagous (68%).
Insects were classified as native or exotic, oligophagous or polyphagous, and endophagous or ectophagous feeders.