Ectopia


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ectopia

[ek′tōp·ē·ə]
(medicine)
A congenital or acquired positional abnormality of an organ or other part of thebody.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Ectopia

 

displacement of an organ into an adjacent body cavity or to the exterior. Ectopia may occur as a birth defect (anomaly of development) or as a result of injury to the walls of a cavity. Examples include ectopia of the urinary bladder to the exterior in case of partial closure of the anterior abdominal wall, ectopia of the spleen into the pleural cavity in case of hernia or traumatic rupture of the diaphragm, and hereditary ectopia lends, displacement of the crystalline lens of the eye.

Some types of ectopia are fatal, for example, ectopia cordis, congenital displacement of the heart outside the chest wall. Other types of ectopia can be corrected surgically.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Ectopia cordis with amniotic bands appears to be distinct from isolated EC.
George, "Hybrid SPECT/CT evaluation of dual ectopia of thyroid in the absence of orthotopic thyroid gland," Clinical Nuclear Medicine, vol.
Ectopia cordis has been known for 5 000 years, but its etiology and pathogenesis has not been elucidated yet (2, 6-8).
As shown in table 1, statistics for the ocular manifestation in that family are; lens ectopia 100% (12/12), flat cornea 30% (4/12), on gated eyeball 42% (5/12), hypo plastic iris or ciliary's muscle hypoplasia 50% (6/12), glaucoma and cataract 25% (3/12), retinal detachment 16%(2/12).
Crossed ectopia of testis- rare type where both the testes are in same hemiscrotum.
Different surgical techniques for the management of ectopia lentis have been reported such as lensectomy and anterior chamber IOL implantation, open loop3,4 or scleral fixation of IOL implant(SF-IOL).5 However, the risks include iritis, pigment dispersion, corec-topia, glaucoma, corneal endothelial loss, and retinal detachment.
B) in some cases, the contralateral testis and the tube are also in the hernia sac; transverse testicular ectopia can also occur.
The incredibly rare defect, ectopia cordis, affects only eight in every million births and ninety percent of these are stillborn or die within three days.
In regard to the aforementioned syndrome patients we have to note that they presented with a variety of the expected typical characteristics, more specifically MVP, arachnodactyly, muscular atrophy and ectopia lentis for the Marfan patients, and MVP skin and joint hyperextensibility (8), ectopia lentis and highgraded myopia for the Ehlers-Danlos patients.
Mullerian hypoplasia or aplasia - renal agenesis - cervicothoracic somite dysplasia known as the MURCS association (Mullerian duct aplasia; R: renal agenesis / ectopia; CS: cervical somite dysplasia) represent the most rare and severe form of the syndrome.7 Ovarian abnormalities such as ectopic or polycystic ovaries have been described.