Ectopia

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ectopia

[ek′tōp·ē·ə]
(medicine)
A congenital or acquired positional abnormality of an organ or other part of thebody.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Ectopia

 

displacement of an organ into an adjacent body cavity or to the exterior. Ectopia may occur as a birth defect (anomaly of development) or as a result of injury to the walls of a cavity. Examples include ectopia of the urinary bladder to the exterior in case of partial closure of the anterior abdominal wall, ectopia of the spleen into the pleural cavity in case of hernia or traumatic rupture of the diaphragm, and hereditary ectopia lends, displacement of the crystalline lens of the eye.

Some types of ectopia are fatal, for example, ectopia cordis, congenital displacement of the heart outside the chest wall. Other types of ectopia can be corrected surgically.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Similar to an epileptic CA3, we recently identified that mossy fibers were ectopically guided to the SO of the CA3 subfield, forming IPB in mice with heterozygous knockout of aisoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ([alpha]-CaMKII hKO), one of the rodent models of schizophrenia.
Caption: Figure 3: This radiograph demonstrates a dysmorphic maxillary right primary canine erupting ectopically into the mesial aspect of the maxillary right first primary molar.
Hence, further study should be done to increase the developmental capacity of cloned embryos by enhancement of nuclear reprogram ability of donor cells and embryos in combination with other factors such as histone deacetylase inhibitor [25] and removal of H3K9me3 in donor somatic cells by ectopically expressed H3K9me3 demethylase such as Kdmd [28].
Ectopically expressed AID enhances accumulation of mutations in cancer related genes such as p53 in gastric epithelial cells.
Targeting of cancer cells which express NTSR1 ectopically is a useful strategy for both detection and therapy of NTSR1 expressing cancers.
Tureci, "A placenta-specific gene ectopically activated in many human cancers is essentially involved in malignant cell processes," Cancer Research, vol.
This phenomenon could explain why in in vitro experiments a specific miRNA, when ectopically overexpressed, degraded its lncRNA target, but at the same time the enforced upregulation of lncRNA suppressed miRNA activity (e.g., miR-1/MALAT1, miR-21/GAS5) [104,124].
Orchiectomy is essential, as the ectopically located testes carry a substantial risk of malignancy.
Cholesteatoma is a rare keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium found ectopically in the middle ear, an area characterized by low cuboidal epithelium.
Li et al., "Ectopically expressed IBP promotes cell proliferation in oral squamous cell carcinoma," Cancer Investigation, vol.
Thus, hexadecenal seemed to arrest cell growth via proteins of the Bcl-2 family when expressed ectopically in yeast.
Studies have shown that oxidative stress can be reduced by dandelion's inhibiting TLR4 ectopically to lipid rafts, thereby reducing smoking-induced lung inflammation [12].