Quantification of CrAQP mRNA through qPCR indicated that the transcript level was higher in the ectosome than in the choanosome.
reniformis as it relates to the engulfed siliceous particles; taking a molecular approach, we identified and cloned the full-length cDNA that encodes the sponge aquaporin CrAQP, whose transcript level was assayed in the ectosome and choanosome of C.
Exosome Microvesicle, ectosome
, shedding vesicles Size 40-100 nm 100-1000 nm Markers CD63, CD9, Alix, Anexin V, Flotillin-2, TSG 101, HSP 70 selectin, integrin, CD40 metalloproteinase Isolation Immunoprecipitation Ultracentrifugation method (ExoQuick[R]) (10,000-60,000 g) ultracentrifugation (100,000-200,000 g), ultracentrifugation with density gradient References 49,53 54 Apoptotic bodies Size 1000-5000 nm Markers Anexin V, DNA, histones Isolation No standardized protocol method References 55
The ectosome is formed by perpendicular tufts of oxea more than 1 mm high.
This species was originally described as having the choanosome light purple and the ectosome white semi-transparent.
Areas of Cacospongia underneath Dysidea were often necrotic, clearly recognized by a loss of the ectosome
, revealing the underlying tan-colored portion of the sponge.
by sediment deposited after a storm, or a large ophiuroid crawling over the sponge), because the rim collapses, along with the thin ectosome covering the surface canals, during lulls in pumping (Fig.
White flecks are often scattered in the ectosome (Fig.
The ectosome is composed of a layer of flattened cells, exopinacocytes, that surround dense interwoven bundles of fibrils of collagen.
reniformis lacks the opaline spicules that are the main constituents of the skeleton of other demosponges; rather, the collagenous ectosome is strengthened by sand grains and exogenous spicules, which are actively incorporated by the sponge (Bavestrello et al.
are transferred to the antigen- presenting cell and can generate signals after the T cell-APC synapse has dissolved.
The fate of maternal RNA containing ectosomes
in relation to the appearance of dorsoventral polarity in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.