Controversy continues to surround the applicability of Bergmann's rule to ectotherms
. For example, studies have shown that the pattern of increasing size as a function of latitude is a phenotypic response to countergradient variation in environmental conditions, such as temperature and length of the growing season.
Ambient temperature is an especially important factor associated with the development and survival of ectotherms
. To minimize the effect of temperature variation, ectotherms
have developed specific physiological and biochemical adaptations.
Temperature, growth rate, and body size in ectotherms
: fitting pieces of a life-history puzzle.
This permitted us to assess the relative contributions of endotherms and ectotherms
to the total number of trophic interactions (both within trophic levels and globally), as well as whether or not paths containing more endotherms, or endotherms at particular trophic positions, produced shorter food chain lengths in each web.
Although Bergmann's rule was originally proposed for homeotherms, Bergmannian (and converse Bergmannian) clines occur in invertebrate and vertebrate ectotherms
(Ray 1960; Masaki 1967, 1978; Honek 1993; Atkinson 1994; Mousseau 1997; Arnett & Gotelli 1999; Brisola Marcondes et al.
The parameters used to produce a system with a point attractor ([x.sub.[c.sub.i]] = 0.4, [x.sub.p] = 0.08, [y.sub.[c.sub.i]], = 1.5, [y.sub.p] = 2, [R.sub.[O.sub.i]] = 0.2, [C.sub.[O.sub.i]] = 0.5) were biologically consistent with vertebrate or invertebrate ectotherms
as predator and consumer (body size ratio of 625:1).
such as marine invertebrates, two important consequences of aerial exposure at low tide are the effects of the environment on body temperature and water loss rates.
(2008) mentioned that WT represents the average of environmental warming an ectotherm
can tolerate before performance drop to a fatal level.
, temperature affects offspring phenotype so that colder mothers produce larger eggs.
Kingsolver, "Evolution of thermal sensitivity of ectotherm
performance," Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol.
The fact that two distinct climate fluctuations affect somewhat independently the length of the growing season and the timing of the breeding season has implications for ectotherm