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a. a ground for legal action; matter giving rise to a lawsuit
b. the lawsuit itself
2. (in the philosophy of Aristotle) any of four requirements for a thing's coming to be, namely material (material cause), its nature (formal cause), an agent (efficient cause), and a purpose (final cause)


any immediate, or more indirect, factor precipitating an outcome. See also CAUSALITY AND CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP.



a phenomenon that directly determines or gives rise to another phenomenon, the effect. In the real world all phenomena and processes are in a state of universal connection and interaction. The concept of “cause” presupposes the singling out of a particular group of phenomena or a system, within the framework of which a causal relation is established between particular phenomena and processes.

Every phenomenon is grounded in several others and is determined by them, its causes. In the process of cognition the researcher inevitably goes beyond the mere description of facts and turns to an investigation of the laws of their origin, development, and functioning, seeking the causes that determine the corresponding properties of a particular object. The movement of thought from description to causal explanation is the movement of cognition from outer to inner, from phenomenon to essence.

As the basis and essence of the effect, the cause functions as the originating and determining element in the relationship between phenomena. The interconnection and mutual conditioning of phenomena take an innumerable variety of forms. Accordingly, the types of causes are extremely diverse. In modern science causes are classified by the most varied criteria. Thus, depending on the nature of the causal relations, causes are classified as ideal and material, informational and energetic (energeticheskie), dynamic and statistical, simple and compound, single-factor and multiple-factor, systemic and nonsystemic, external and internal, primary and nonprimary, objective and subjective, and so on.

It is customary to distinguish the cause from the circumstances of its operation. In the social sciences, causes are distinguished from reasons—the processes contributing to the formation and manifestation of causes. Consideration of the diversity of phenomena gives rise to the conception of causality as a fundamental feature of reality.



Actions, omissions, events, conditions, or a combination thereof, which led to the accident or incident investigation (ICAO).
References in periodicals archive ?
Even though a hormetic treatment may show only a small effect, Calabrese proposes that several treatments might be put together to achieve a therapeutic benefit.
Activity per unit protein showed the same trend, although for this measure the TH effect was at the margin of significance (p < 0.
The committee then ran a second set of tests to determine if the water pH had an effect.
In simplistic terms, effect size refers to any statistic that describes the degree of difference or relationship between the variables of interest.
In order to determine whether the studies can reasonably be described as sharing a common effect size, the statistical test for homogeneity of effect sizes was conducted.
Kacker, Combining information from interlaboratory evaluations using a random effects model, Metrologia 41, 132-136 (2004).
However, these results were met with some skepticism because Shea and Ge also used conventional oral antidepressant medications and provided counseling, which might have had an effect on their findings-that is, we cannot be certain which of the interventions led to the improvement.
For attitude toward recommended behavior, a significant main effect of efficacy (F (1,258) = 9.
Another troubling brain effect has recently surfaced: fluoride's interference with the function of the brain's pineal gland.
The STAR experiment shows how a single randomized field trial can begin to clarify the effect of a particular intervention against a backdrop of many nonrandomized trials.
Because most occupational exposures do not lead to HIV infection, the chance of possible serious side effects (toxicity) from any of the drugs used to prevent infection may be much greater than the chance of HIV infection from such exposures.
When there are side effects from childhood vaccinations, they are usually mild.