Radio Refractivity and the Effective Earth Radius Factor (k-factor)
The ratio between the effective and true earth radius is referred to as the effective earth radius factor (fc-factor) and is given by [10, 16, 17]:
where k is the effective earth radius factor and [r.
If the choice of both the median and effective values of the effective earth radius factor for link design is not appropriate for the particular topographical setting, the signal may be obstructed by the Earth and consequently little or no signal is detected at the receiver.
Previous Work on the Effective Earth Radius Factor in Africa
From the distribution modeling results, we conclude that just as in [19,21,22], the distribution of the effective earth radius factor for South Africa is bell-shaped, centered almost symmetrically around a median value, [[mu].
Baker, "Predicting the long-term average of the effective earth radius factor for South Africa using ground based observations," SAIEE Africa Research Journal, Vol.
Baker, "A novel semi-empirical model of the effective earth radius factor," IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, Vol.