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the general features and characteristics of the ideas and, by extension, the main social institutions and activities, of a particular society. This relatively uncommon term was introduced by Gregory BATESON (1936), and also used by Charles Madge (1964).



a term that was originally used in ancient philosophy and literature to designate the visible, or “that which is seen,” but that gradually acquired a deeper meaning—”concrete manifest-ness,” or “physical or plastic givenness in thought.”

For Homer the term meant “outward appearance,” and primarily “beautiful outward appearance.” In ancient natural philosophy (Empedocles and Democritus) eidos was interpreted almost exclusively as “image.” Parmenides, however, regarded it as the essence, or truth, that is visible in one way or another. Plato’s eidos had different meanings, such as “the external,” “the internal,” or even the characteristically Platonic “substantial idea.” Aristotle used eidos to mean “form” as well. In Stoicism and Neoplatonism the term ranges in meaning from “body appearance” to “independent substantial idea.”

In the phenomenology of E. Husserl, eidos, or rather its Latin translation species, designates the highest intellectual abstraction that is nonetheless a concrete, obvious, and entirely independent given.


Losev, A. F. Ocherki antichnogo simvolizma i mifologii. Moscow, 1930. Pages 135–281.
Losev, A. F. Istoriia antichnoi estetiki [vol. 3]: Vysokaia klassika. Moscow, 1974. Pages 318–361.
Ritter, C. Neue Untersuchungen über Platón. Munich, 1910. Pages 228–336.
Hartmann, N. Zur Lehre vom Eidos bei Platon und Aristoteles. Berlin, 1941.


References in periodicals archive ?
Tim Ryan, chairman of Eidos, said the offer provided shareholders with an attractive price and certainty amid a challenging market backdrop.
In a further blow to Elevation earlier this month, Eidos directors withdrew support for its offer and recommended the SCi bid - currently worth pounds 97.
They included the fact that a combination of Eidos and SCi will not result in a significantly larger business within an industry that it said required scale to compete effectively.
Best known for the Tomb Raider series, Eidos fell into the red by pounds 29m at the half-year stage and uncertainty over its future has led to a number of key members of staff quitting.
This has been an immense collaborative effort and we're extremely proud of Batman: Arkham Asylum," said Lee Singleton, General Manager, Eidos Game Studios.
As a result Eidos said it expected full year sales to fall to between pounds 160m and pounds 180m, compared to its previous estimate of pounds 180m to pounds 200m.
Financially-troubled Eidos - home to cyberbabe Lara Croft (below) - accepted a pounds 71 million offer from private equity firm Elevation in March before later receiving a counter approach from smaller counterpart SCi.
Eidos directors have given their blessing to a pounds 71m bid by Elevation Partners, which includes U2 frontman Bono among its directors.
Eidos, a publisher and developer of entertainment software, has signed a development deal with Climax.
COMPUTER games group Eidos yesterday said the delayed release o f four products planned for this month would leave its mark on full-year figures.
IF you doubted whether Eidos boss Charles Cornwall could make things worse at the Lara Croft computer game firm, look no further.
Eidos blamed increased competition from rivals for huge losses of pounds 26.