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the general features and characteristics of the ideas and, by extension, the main social institutions and activities, of a particular society. This relatively uncommon term was introduced by Gregory BATESON (1936), and also used by Charles Madge (1964).
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a term that was originally used in ancient philosophy and literature to designate the visible, or “that which is seen,” but that gradually acquired a deeper meaning—”concrete manifest-ness,” or “physical or plastic givenness in thought.”

For Homer the term meant “outward appearance,” and primarily “beautiful outward appearance.” In ancient natural philosophy (Empedocles and Democritus) eidos was interpreted almost exclusively as “image.” Parmenides, however, regarded it as the essence, or truth, that is visible in one way or another. Plato’s eidos had different meanings, such as “the external,” “the internal,” or even the characteristically Platonic “substantial idea.” Aristotle used eidos to mean “form” as well. In Stoicism and Neoplatonism the term ranges in meaning from “body appearance” to “independent substantial idea.”

In the phenomenology of E. Husserl, eidos, or rather its Latin translation species, designates the highest intellectual abstraction that is nonetheless a concrete, obvious, and entirely independent given.


Losev, A. F. Ocherki antichnogo simvolizma i mifologii. Moscow, 1930. Pages 135–281.
Losev, A. F. Istoriia antichnoi estetiki [vol. 3]: Vysokaia klassika. Moscow, 1974. Pages 318–361.
Ritter, C. Neue Untersuchungen über Platón. Munich, 1910. Pages 228–336.
Hartmann, N. Zur Lehre vom Eidos bei Platon und Aristoteles. Berlin, 1941.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Financially-troubled Eidos, home to Lara Croft, accepted a pounds 71m offer from private equity firm Elevation in March before later receiving a counter approach from smaller counterpart SCi.
And Warner Bros Entertainment, which has a stake of around 20% in Eidos, is contractually obliged to agree to the scheme, unless it makes a higher offer, according to Eidos.
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"Tomb Raider: Anniversary offers Lara fans something highly original, but also offers gamers who are new to Lara, a completely fresh and new action adventure game," said executive vice president of Sales and Marketing, Robert Lindsey, Eidos, Inc.
Strong sales of the latest version of Eidos's chart-topping Championship Manager game and the distribution of Lego Star Wars lay behind the profits performance, SCi said.
Shares in Eidos rocketed 26% after rival computer games maker SCi Entertainment stepped in with a pounds 76.1m offer to trump an earlier recommended bid from a US-based private equity group.
Shares in Eidos rocketed by 26% after rival computer games maker SCi Entertainment stepped in with a pounds 76.1m offer to trump an earlier, recommended, bid from a US-based private equity group.
LARA Croft took a body-blow yesterday as shares in her creators Eidos plunged to a record low amid financial concerns.
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