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the general features and characteristics of the ideas and, by extension, the main social institutions and activities, of a particular society. This relatively uncommon term was introduced by Gregory BATESON (1936), and also used by Charles Madge (1964).



a term that was originally used in ancient philosophy and literature to designate the visible, or “that which is seen,” but that gradually acquired a deeper meaning—”concrete manifest-ness,” or “physical or plastic givenness in thought.”

For Homer the term meant “outward appearance,” and primarily “beautiful outward appearance.” In ancient natural philosophy (Empedocles and Democritus) eidos was interpreted almost exclusively as “image.” Parmenides, however, regarded it as the essence, or truth, that is visible in one way or another. Plato’s eidos had different meanings, such as “the external,” “the internal,” or even the characteristically Platonic “substantial idea.” Aristotle used eidos to mean “form” as well. In Stoicism and Neoplatonism the term ranges in meaning from “body appearance” to “independent substantial idea.”

In the phenomenology of E. Husserl, eidos, or rather its Latin translation species, designates the highest intellectual abstraction that is nonetheless a concrete, obvious, and entirely independent given.


Losev, A. F. Ocherki antichnogo simvolizma i mifologii. Moscow, 1930. Pages 135–281.
Losev, A. F. Istoriia antichnoi estetiki [vol. 3]: Vysokaia klassika. Moscow, 1974. Pages 318–361.
Ritter, C. Neue Untersuchungen über Platón. Munich, 1910. Pages 228–336.
Hartmann, N. Zur Lehre vom Eidos bei Platon und Aristoteles. Berlin, 1941.


References in periodicals archive ?
For Eidos booth appointments please email Stanley Phan sphan@eidos.
Eidos said Insight Investment Management and Cazenove Capital Management, which together have a 13% stake in the company, have backed the offer from Square Enix's subsidiary SQEX.
They included the fact that a combination of Eidos and SCi will not result in a significantly larger business within an industry that it said required scale to compete effectively.
Elevation, which was formed last year to invest in the media and entertainment industries, offered 50p per share to take Eidos private.
Best known for the Tomb Raider series, Eidos fell into the red by pounds 29m at the half-year stage and uncertainty over its future has led to a number of key members of staff quitting.
Responding to the statement by SCi, the board of Eidos said it would ``consider the share offer in the light of its other alternatives
Responding to SCi's statement, the board of Eidos said last night it would 'consider the share offer in the light of its other alternatives' and make an announcement in due course.
Eidos plans to launch some of its key brands for BREW-enabled mobile phones, including Tomb Raider and Thief.
Eidos can be found on the World Wide Web at http://www.
Eidos is one of the world's leading developers and publishers of entertainment software and is best known for several triple-A titles, including the Lara Croft: Tomb Raider series, Battlestations Midway and the Hitman series.
Eidos North America Oonagh Morgan, Stanley Phan Tel: 650 421 7600 or pr@eidos.
It is developing an action game entitled Just Cause for Eidos, which will be released in 2005 on PlayStation 2, Xbox and PC.