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(āhē`thō) [Span.,=common land], in Mexico, agricultural land expropriated from large private holdings and redistributed to communal farms. Communal ownership of land had been widely practiced by the Aztecs, but the institution was in decline before the Spanish arrived. The conquistadors instituted the encomiendaencomienda
[Span. encomendar=to entrust], system of tributory labor established in Spanish America. Developed as a means of securing an adequate and cheap labor supply, the encomienda was first used over the conquered Moors of Spain.
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, which was superseded by the repartimientorepartimiento
, in Spanish colonial practice, usually, the distribution of indigenous people for forced labor. In a broader sense it referred to any official distribution of goods, property, services, and the like.
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 and finally, after independence (1821), by debt peonage. Although legally abolished by the constitution of 1917, which provided for the restoration of the ejido, peonage remained a general practice until the presidency of Lázaro CárdenasCárdenas, Lázaro
, 1895–1970, president of Mexico (1934–40). He joined the revolutionary forces in 1913 and rose to become a general. He was governor (1928–32) of his native state, Michoacán, and held other political posts before he was,
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. In the Laguna DistrictLaguna District
[Span.,=lake], irrigated area in E Durango and W Coahuila states, N central Mexico. Originally a 900,000-acre (364,200-hectare) tract, consisting of large estates, the land was reapportioned (1936) under President Lázaro Cárdenas and distributed to
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 in 1936, the ejido became fact on a large scale. The intent of the ejido system is to remedy the social injustice of the past and to increase production of subsistence foods. The land is owned by the government, and the ejido is financed by a special national bank which supplies the necessary capital for reclamation, improvement, initial seeding, and so forth. In effect, the bank has replaced the colonial encomendero, with this difference—the laborer is paid on the basis of unit work accomplished.


See D. Ronfeldt, Atencingo; The Politics of Agrarian Struggle in a Mexican Ejido (1973).

References in periodicals archive ?
Throughout the Civil War, Gilpin sold chunks of the ejido to investors betting on a Union victory.
Compared to pure open access conditions, ejido land management may therefore have mitigated considerably the incentives for farmers to convert forest land to agriculture in response to any incr eases in the maize-fertilizer price ratio during the pre-NAFTA period.
The Emiliano Zapata ejido was legally built on 1,600 hectares of private land 75 years ago.
23) However, the most striking step in the liberalizing drive to rationalize agriculture and facilitate movement toward agro-industry came in 1992, when the modification of Article 27 of the Mexican Constitution effectively halted land reform and permitted the sale of ejido land distributed under the old order.
Jusqu'a recemment, cinquante pour cent du territoire etait propriete de communage appelee ejido , regroupant un ensemble de terres collectives et d'aires protegees.
The rental agreement allows the ejido to apply up-front cash to outstanding bank loans.
For the campesinos who are the focus of Gledhill's case study, the process diminishes the viability of small farming and disrupts social patterns founded on the ejido, the small plots granted by the government to Mexicans seeking land.
Cost is $326 per person, double occupancy, and includes van transportation, lodgings, meals, a tour of the abalone farm at Ejido Erendira and a ride to the crest of the San Pedro Martir mountains.
As the reduction of life to market and commercial principles defines the daily course of existence, the Indian peasants become the most obvious victims, the ones least able to defend their small ejido, their tiny village, their unwritten language and ancient customs.
Thompson and Wilson (1994) provide an in-depth evaluation of privatization efforts in Mexico's ejido sector.
Tokensure that the land did not slip back to the landowners, the drafters of tse constitution enacted the ejido system: The government wouyo own tse land, but ts, peasant who had the ejido rights could farm the land and pass it on to succeediol generations.
Conveniently located in one of the trendiest and fastest growing neighborhoods of Quito, the Holiday Inn Express is just a few blocks from two landmark tourist attractions, Parque El Ejido and Museo Nacional del Banco Central.