ejido


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ejido

(āhē`thō) [Span.,=common land], in Mexico, agricultural land expropriated from large private holdings and redistributed to communal farms. Communal ownership of land had been widely practiced by the Aztecs, but the institution was in decline before the Spanish arrived. The conquistadors instituted the encomiendaencomienda
[Span. encomendar=to entrust], system of tributory labor established in Spanish America. Developed as a means of securing an adequate and cheap labor supply, the encomienda was first used over the conquered Moors of Spain.
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, which was superseded by the repartimientorepartimiento
, in Spanish colonial practice, usually, the distribution of indigenous people for forced labor. In a broader sense it referred to any official distribution of goods, property, services, and the like.
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 and finally, after independence (1821), by debt peonage. Although legally abolished by the constitution of 1917, which provided for the restoration of the ejido, peonage remained a general practice until the presidency of Lázaro CárdenasCárdenas, Lázaro
, 1895–1970, president of Mexico (1934–40). He joined the revolutionary forces in 1913 and rose to become a general. He was governor (1928–32) of his native state, Michoacán, and held other political posts before he was,
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. In the Laguna DistrictLaguna District
[Span.,=lake], irrigated area in E Durango and W Coahuila states, N central Mexico. Originally a 900,000-acre (364,200-hectare) tract, consisting of large estates, the land was reapportioned (1936) under President Lázaro Cárdenas and distributed to
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 in 1936, the ejido became fact on a large scale. The intent of the ejido system is to remedy the social injustice of the past and to increase production of subsistence foods. The land is owned by the government, and the ejido is financed by a special national bank which supplies the necessary capital for reclamation, improvement, initial seeding, and so forth. In effect, the bank has replaced the colonial encomendero, with this difference—the laborer is paid on the basis of unit work accomplished.

Bibliography

See D. Ronfeldt, Atencingo; The Politics of Agrarian Struggle in a Mexican Ejido (1973).

References in periodicals archive ?
Contract notice: project and facultative direction el ejido health center
Cabe precisar que aqui se presenta el proceso emprendido por quienes se consideran los fundadores de cada ejido, entre los que sobresalen personas reconocidas localmente por haber liderado esta tarea.
Ahora tenemos en el ejido 350 talleres de cohetes que arrojan a nuestras milpas sus desechos quimicos: azufre, aluminio y tanta porqueria.
La inquietud surgio cuando los expertos detectaron algunos claros, debido a la deforestacion y degradacion forestal en el ejido El Rosario, municipio de Ocampo, Michoacan, una de las zonas del santuario donde la mariposa cumple su ciclo de hibernacion.
Este ejercicio de investigacion historica busca recuperar las caracteristicas de la vida cotidiana de las mujeres del ejido Jose Maria Morelos, en el municipio de Cajeme, Sonora.
La organizacion comunitaria considera la estructura organizacional, procedimientos administrativos y funciones laborales de EyCF/EFC; la flexibilidad, esta relacionada con la cultura organizacional, nivel de integracion productiva, sensibilidad y motivacion a los cambios; la capacidad de respuesta e innovacion, senala el grado en que el ejido o comunidad tiene un nivel de respuesta oportuna o no a la presencia de cualquier factor relacionado con el desarrollo del mismo; la competitividad y colaboracion, se refiere al grado de disponibilidad del ejido o comunidad para colaborar e integrarse con otros ejidos e instituciones para lograr mejor competitividad.
Lauraceae) ubicadas en los municipios de Tepic, Xalisco y San Blas, Nayarit, Mexico En Tepic, las recolectas se hicieron en dos huertos con el cultivar "Hass", la primera en Ejido Camichin de Jauja llamada 'Tintilagua' (21[grados]29 x 18.
45 and 46 Ejido Plan Libertador, Km 35+000 Boulevard 2000 Ros-Tij, from the Municipality of Playas de Rosarito, BC, Mexico.
The company's Los Filos mine was blocked by an ejido for more than a month earlier this year, and it has faced weeks of legal uncertainty at its giant Penasquito mine.
b) La creacion de una legislacion especial para llevar a cabo la dotacion o restitucion de tierras, la cual se modifico constantemente para establecer diferentes normativas sobre la cantidad de tierras que debia recibir cada ejido, las tierras que podian ser afectadas o no, los derechos y obligaciones de los ejidatarios y sus sucesores.
Goldcorp announced on May 5 that its Los Filos mine in Guerrero state, Mexico, had resumed all operations following a negotiated settlement with the Carrizalillo Ejido for a new land occupancy agreement with a five-year term.
The company has taken this step following a negotiated settlement with the Carrizalillo Ejido for a new land occupancy agreement with a five-year term.