At the same time, the associated variation in mechanical performance is assessable through strain-induced

elastic buckling instability for mechanical measurements (SIEBIMM), a high throughput metrology to manifest thin film mechanical properties.

where E is the modulus of elasticity of steel, [F.sub.y] is the yield strength of steel, K is the effective length factor, L is the laterally unbraced length of the member, r is the radius of gyration of the member, and [F.sub.e] is the

elastic buckling strength given by (3).

Schafer [5] has developed semi-analytical finite strip method for

elastic buckling of cold-formed steel sections.

When the [L.sub.u]/ [d.sub.sf_Is.sup.e] is between 30 and 45,

elastic buckling occurred in all of the SFCBs.

9] has used this spectrum to analyze plastic collapse load, ultimate strength, shear buckling strength and

elastic buckling strength of corroded plates with irregular surfaces.

[11], presented an analytical procedure for the

elastic buckling problems of thin-walled members with variable-thickness cross sections.

In the classical theory of

elastic buckling, the coupling terms of translational displacements and axial rotation are ignored in the regime of small deformation [1-3].

It revealed that the using CFRP to slender sections increases axial capacity, strength-to-weight ratio, and

elastic buckling stress up to 4 times.

(i) load corresponding to the

elastic buckling stage (ii) load resisted by tension field action and (iii) load contributed by the flanges.

The

elastic buckling property of nanotubes is both an advantage and a limitation when used as a scanned probe 2, 10].

Ru, "

Elastic buckling of single-walled carbon nanotube ropes under high pressure," Physical Review B, vol.

Tong, "

Elastic buckling of web plates in I-girders under patch and wheel loading," Engineering Structures, vol.