electric charge


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Wikipedia.
Related to electric charge: electric potential, Electric charge density

electric charge:

see chargecharge,
property of matter that gives rise to all electrical phenomena (see electricity). The basic unit of charge, usually denoted by e, is that on the proton or the electron; that on the proton is designated as positive (+e
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Electric charge

A basic property of elementary particles of matter. One does not define charge but takes it as a basic experimental quantity and defines other quantities in terms of it.

According to modern atomic theory, the nucleus of an atom has a positive charge because of its protons, and in the normal atom there are enough extranuclear electrons to balance the nuclear charge so that the normal atom as a whole is neutral. Generally, when the word charge is used in electricity, it means the unbalanced charge (excess or deficiency of electrons), so that physically there are enough “nonnormal” atoms to account for the positive charge on a “positively charged body” or enough unneutralized electrons to account for the negative charge on a “negatively charged body."

In line with this usage, the total charge q on a body is the total unbalanced charge possessed by the body. For example, if a sphere has a negative charge of 1 × 10-10 coulomb, it has 6.24 × 108 electrons more than are needed to neutralize its atoms. The coulomb is the unit of charge in the meter-kilogram-second (mks) system of units. See Coulomb's law, Electrical units and standards, Electrostatics

Electric Charge

 

the source of an electromagnetic field that is associated with material carriers; an intrinsic characteristic of elementary particles that determines their electromagnetic interactions. Electric charge is one of the basic concepts in the science of electricity. The entirety of electric phenomena is a manifestation of the existence, motion, and interaction of electric charges.

Two distinct kinds of electric charges are differentiated and are conventionally designated as positive and negative; it has been noted that bodies (or particles) with like charges repel one another and those with unlike charges attract one another, a fact first established by C. F. Dufay in 1733–34. The charge of an electrified glass rod was designated positive, and the charge of a resin rod (specifically, an amber rod) was designated negative. In accordance with this assumption, the electric charge of an electron is negative (the Greek word elektron means “amber”).

Electric charges are discrete: there exists a minimal elementary electric charge, of which the charges of all bodies are multiples. The total electric charge of a closed physical system is equal to the algebraic sum of the charges of its constituent elementary particles (for the common macroscopic bodies these particles are protons and electrons). This total charge is rigorously preserved during all interactions and transformations of the particles in the system. The force of interaction between quiescent charged bodies (or particles) obeys Coulomb’s law. The relationship between electric charges and an electromagnetic field is defined by Maxwell’s equations.

In the International System of Units, electric charges are measured in coulombs.

L. I. PONOMAREV

electric charge

[i¦lek·trik ′chärj]
(electricity)
References in periodicals archive ?
For example, with an average overall size of a thunderstorm cloud of 1 km x 1 km x 4 km (horizontal dimensions and size in height) and its corresponding volume [V.sub.0] [approximately equal to]4 x [10.sup.9] [m.sup.3], the specified value [[sigma].sub.V] [approximately equal to] 2.78 x [10.sup.-8] C/[m.sup.3] causes appearance in the given cloud of the total electric charge [q.sub.[summation][approximately equal to][[sigma].sub.V][V.sub.0], by modulus equals about 111 C.
The capacitor charge is proportional to the potential, and it is easy to determine the satiation potential [phi] when the number of electric charges becomes equal with the number of electrons carrying the charges.
After performing the analysis, an increase of the deposit layers adhesion can be noticed in the case of the tests where powders cladded with electric charges were used in the metallization process.
In these last two works, there was a systematic coincidence of the simultaneous appearance or disappearance of both, strong slip conditions and electric charge on the extrudates.
There will be two electric charge points at the guest house, one of them providing an overnight trickle charge and the other a quicker charge.
Recently, Zhang has considered the electric charge to be a form of imaginary energy [1].
electric field A region of space characterized by the existence of a force generated by electric charge.
In a result that might one day upend that arithmetic, researchers at the University of Maryland's NanoCenter have developed a way to store electric charge using nanoscale technology that can circumvent the limits of batteries.
1 : to give an electric charge to <charge a device>
A positive electric charge and a negative electric charge are needed to produce electricity.
When a muon hits the detector, the particle produces a tiny electric charge. From this, the machine can determine the direction from which the muon traveled.
They work by sending a small electric charge between two metal probes when they are pushed into the wall.