electrical resistance


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Electrical resistance

Opposition of a circuit to the flow of electric current. Ohm's law states that the current I flowing in a circuit is proportional to the applied potential difference V. The constant of proportionality is defined as the resistance R. Hence, Eq. (1)

(1) 
holds. If V and I are measured in volts and amperes, respectively, R is measured in ohms. Microscopically, resistance is associated with the impedance to flow of charge carriers offered by the material. For example, in a metallic conductor the charge carriers are electrons moving in a polycrystalline material in which their journey is impeded by collisions with imperfections in the local crystal lattice, such as impurity atoms, vacancies, and dislocations. In these collisions the carriers lose energy to the crystal lattice, and thus Joule heat is liberated in the conductor, which rises in temperature. The Joule heat P is given by
(2) 
Eq. (2). See Crystal defects, Electrical resistivity, Joule's law, Ohm's law

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Physics. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

electrical resistance

[i′lek·trə·kəl ri′zis·təns]
(acoustics)
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

electrical resistance

The physical property of a device, conductor, element, branch, or system, by virtue of which power is lost as heat when current flows through it; the physical property which an electric conductor exhibits to the flow of current; measured in ohms.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Electrical resistance was measured by means of a two-point probe digital multimeter Keithley 2700 with a full scale of 120 Mil For each trial, surface electrical resistance of 4 different and parallel tracks were evaluated.
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Figure 6(a) depicts the comparison between the results obtained using embedded steel wire electrodes and external copper plate electrodes: the external plate electrodes provided an electrical resistance variation which decreased with the increase of the amount of conductive fillers.
The electrical resistance increased more in the outer bending than inner bending which indicated that the microcrack occurred in the outer bending.
There was a statistically significant difference between the initial electrical resistance in the nichrome wires and the resistance after coating: t (40)= 3.409; df=39; p = 0.0015.
A homemade electrical resistance device was built, tested on the known thin films, and then used for the electrical characterizations of the electrospun nanocomposite fibers [4].
In addition, the key operating parameters of electrical resistance and power consumption of the units exhibit stability over the full duration of the test.
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Considers increasing electrical resistance at higher operating temperatures.
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