from Hubei State Grid Electric Power Research Institute have adopted the magnetotelluric method to measure the deep-layer soil resistivity and have got the DC grounding electrode resistance
by comparing the 5-layer horizontal soil resistivity model to the 15-layer one.
Calculation results of the measurement electrode resistance
for ER and confidence intervals from Table 4 are shown in Table 5.
The calculation of a ground electrode resistance, using a two layer soil model, has been widely presented in literature.
To calculate an electrode resistance in top layer the procedure is the same as in bottom layer.
The electrode resistance
[R.sub.l] depends on total the length of the electrode stick-out length and drop length l = [l.sub.s] + [i.sub.d].
For the resistance welding with AC power, the peak values of tip voltage and welding current are used for computing the dynamic electrode resistance
in order to reduce the effect of electromagnets [9-17].
Finally, the earth electrode resistance
was determined based on Ohm's law.
GPR is directly proportional to earth electrode resistance
and the current flowing through it .
This action initiates a quality control check based on electrode resistance
. When this is accepted, a baseline current is established and the user is instructed to insert the probe into the sample.
Other topics treated in this chapter are transconductance and transconductance delays, output conductance, parasitic series resistances, FET electrode resistances
, via hole inductance, GaAs FET noise and power MMICs.