In this method, the distribution of electrical resistance within the surface is achieved through measuring the electrode voltage
beside the surface (Fig.
The output optical binary code bits can be converted into the electrical domain by applying appropriate photodetectors, then fed into electrode voltage
for corresponding MZI.
For each group of data, the average of two voltages was used to calculate the ratio of the electrode voltage
with the high-resistance cylinder to that without the cylinder (i.e., the voltage increase rate K).
The average wind speed in the pipe depends on the distance between the electrodes, electrode voltage
Operation at low voltage also means that the electronics used to apply the electrode voltage
and to measure the detector current can be simpler, more compact, safer to the user, and much less power consuming."
The oscillator operated at a stabilized frequency of 13.56 MHz, and a maximum output of 10 kW at a maximum electrode voltage
of 5 kV.
where [U.sub.ac] is the electrode voltage
drop in the considered HVCAS, equal to the difference of electrical potentials at the interface between the <<spark-metal>> media.
In Figure 8 it is shown the counter electrode voltage
. Also, in Figure 9 it is shown voltage at the work electrode.
A voltage-controlled oscillator converts the varying electrode voltage
into a varying frequency, which is amplified and transmitted acoustically by the piezoelectric transducer.