In this method, the distribution of electrical resistance within the surface is achieved through measuring the electrode voltage
beside the surface (Fig.
The output optical binary code bits can be converted into the electrical domain by applying appropriate photodetectors, then fed into electrode voltage
for corresponding MZI.
For each group of data, the average of two voltages was used to calculate the ratio of the electrode voltage
with the high-resistance cylinder to that without the cylinder (i.
This equipment is expected to collect two electrode voltage
clamp electrophysiology data from multiple oocytes (96 or more) in an automated fashion.
The average wind speed in the pipe depends on the distance between the electrodes, electrode voltage
Operation at low voltage also means that the electronics used to apply the electrode voltage
and to measure the detector current can be simpler, more compact, safer to the user, and much less power consuming.
56 MHz, and a maximum output of 10 kW at a maximum electrode voltage
of 5 kV.
ac] is the electrode voltage
drop in the considered HVCAS, equal to the difference of electrical potentials at the interface between the <<spark-metal>> media.
Equipment will acquire simultaneously on a single cardiac myocyte (I) the level of intracellular calcium by fluorimetry (Fura-4f), (II) and cell shortening sarcomeres cells stimulated by electric field, (III) the potential membrane or transmembrane ion currents by the technique of microelectrode DSEVC mode (Discontinuous Single Electrode Voltage
In Figure 8 it is shown the counter electrode voltage
A voltage-controlled oscillator converts the varying electrode voltage
into a varying frequency, which is amplified and transmitted acoustically by the piezoelectric transducer.
Other peripheral components include a heat exchanger to control process temperatures and an oscilloscope to observe electrode voltages
, pulse waveforms, and pulse widths.