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Electrolytic process in which a metal is deposited at the cathode from a solution of its ions; includes electroplating and electroforming. Also known as electrolytic deposition.



(also electrolytic deposition), the deposition of a metal or an alloy at a cathode during the electrolysis of a solution or melt of the respective salt.

Crystal growth during electrodeposition has much in common with crystallization from a vapor or a solution. The factor that governs supersaturation in electrodeposition is the overvoltage that occurs at an electrode during an electrochemical reaction. Depending on the magnitude of the overvoltage, crystal growth may occur by means of spiral growth on screw dislocations, the formation and growth of two-dimensional crystal nuclei, or—at high enough overvoltages—the formation of three-dimensional nuclei. The formation and growth of two-dimensional nuclei are typical of dislocationless crystals; the formation of three-dimensional nuclei is the normal process of crystal growth.

The possibility of varying the cathodic overvoltage over a wide range makes it possible to obtain metallic layers that have markedly different properties. Thus, depending on the formation conditions for deposits, the dislocation density in a deposit may range from 106 to 1012 cm–2. Consequently, such properties as conductivity, hardness, and ductility may also be varied. High dislocation densities have been found in deposits of, for example, copper, nickel, iron, chromium, platinum, and silver.

The adsorption of surfactants and the incorporation of impurities have an especially strong effect on the structure of the metallic deposits obtained by electrodeposition.

Electrodeposition is the basis of electrometallurgy, the refining of metals, and electroplating technology.


References in periodicals archive ?
22), (23) variations in solution composition and operating parameters have resulted in a number of stable solutions clable of producing good electrodeposits of Ni-P.
The Ni-P electrodeposits having different P content thus obtained were further investigated to study the effect of P content on the microstructure, surface morphology, and mechanical properties of the deposits.
Other researchers have hypothesized that the formation of the intermetallic tin-copper layer produces an accumulation of significant stresses within the electrodeposit that are then relieved via the formation of whiskers.
Electrodeposits of PbO2 and PbO2 + Ce2O3 on Stainless Steel: Potential - Current responses for the electrodeposition of Lead dioxide on stainless steel with and without incorporation of Cerium oxide from Lead nitrate 10 mM and Lead nitrate 10 mM containing Cerium nitrate 1 mM and 0.
Figure 1 presents the influence of the technological parameters tested (current density, temperature, pH) on the composition of the electrodeposits and on the efficiency current (curve -[?
8121 V), indicating that the dissolution of Zn-Ni composite electrodeposits requires a slightly higher potential than for the Zn-Ni alloy.
The hardness of the electrodeposits was determined with a Vickers microhardness device (Fischer Scope HM 2000 S), as described in DIN EN 1S014577.
This may be due to agglomeration and sedimentation of the SiC nanoparticles at higher concentrations, which prevents an increase in the particle content in electrodeposits.
An Empirical Study Into Whisker-Growth in Tin and Tin Alloy Electrodeposits
Panagopoulos, CN, Agathocleous, PE, Papachristos, VD, Michaelides, A, "Sliding Wear Behaviour of Zinc-Iron Alloy Electrodeposits.
Electrodeposition of ternary Zn-Ni-Fe alloy was investigated and compared with the characteristics of Zn-Ni electrodeposits.