As shown, high-quality, pure rare-earths can be obtained using an Fe removal process utilizing heat and electrolytic refining that requires a large amount of energy .
The use of this process, which does not involve electrolytic refining, yields a 99.9% separation of the rare earths while reducing C[O.sub.2] emissions during material recovery by 80%.
Business Solutions" Norilsk Nickel "will KGMK abandon costly technology is now used by the electrolytic refining
of nickel anodes.
During electroplating of aluminum, a purification (electrolytic refining
) takes place, which results in an aluminum coating with a purity of 99.99 % Al percentage by mass.
Under a separate agreement, SWIL is acquiring know-how for electrolytic refining
of copper from MIM Technology.
Last year, the plant recovered 79,735 t of blister copper which was refined further at the electrolytic refining
plant, together with other copper-bearing materials purchased from outside sources, for a total output of 83,700 t of cathode copper.
ENAMI, which employs a workforce of 3,200, has four copper concentrators located in Chile's regions II and III, producing concentrates and precipitates which form part of the supply for its major smelting and electrolytic refining
NA also pioneered the electrolytic refining
process and built the world's first electrolytic refinery in 1876.
Pamp, like a majority of the world's accredited refiners, has adopted the cleaner, simpler and more effective treatment process of electrolytic refining
rather than chlorination or wet chemical parting for its manufacturing activities.
This process, first used in Germany during 1878, was abandoned with the introduction of electrolytic refining
Seven sections of the book: introduction, primary smelting, hydrometallurgy, electrolytic refining
, fire refining, by-product recovery (notably tin, tellurium, zinc and silver), and manufacture of bismuth products, focus on Chinese metallurgical plant operations and include references to common operating difficulties such as difficult-to-melt charges and furnace breakdowns.
Byproducts include molybdenite concentrate and precious metals, the latter being recovered during electrolytic refining