Such beam splitters, which split a single incoming beam into two separate beams, are much used standard devices in light optics, but they don't exist for electron beams
The shape of the penetration channel is described by the function z(x, y), where [[tau].sub.x], [[tau].sub.y] is the electron beam
's displacement from its equilibrium position in the penetration channel, and [j.sub.b](x - [[tau].sub.x], y - [[tau].sub.y]) is the electron beam
's current density distribution.
The emitted electron beams
exhibit energies ranging from few keV to hundreds of keV [20,21].
The possibility of AMs excitation by a relativistic electron beam
rotating over plasma column was shown at the first time in the linear approximation in the paper .
Before the electron beam
treatment, the samples were machined to dimensions of 14 mm x 10 mm x 5 mm and austenitized at 1050[degrees]C for 30 min.
Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the quality changes of commercial sliced and pizza cheeses after gamma and electron beam
Paton Electric Welding Institute has developed and subsequently improved the mathematical model of solidification of cylindrical ingots in electron beam
melting in an intermediate container (EBMIC) which makes it possible to determine the distribution of temperatures in the cylindrical ingot at any moment of time and, consequently, the configuration of the liquid pool and of the zone of the solid-liquid state of the metal in relation to the technological parameters of the electron beam
melting (process productivity, periodicity of pouring in the melt into the solidification mould and the power of electron beam
sterilization can enable lighter weight packaging materials, drastically reduce energy consumptipn, and eliminate the need for rinse water.
The cover gas is directed at the material and, if there is a small aperture, hole or anomaly in the material, a change in the electronic charge or "corona beam" (also known as an electron beam
, an electrostatic corona or a corona discharge) occurs, which is measured by an AM radio pick-up sensor.
Cambridge, UK-based TWI has managed to reconfigure the technique of electron beam
welding, yielding a manufacturing process that promises better performing products.
Tomography is the science of reconstructing three-dimensional structures from a set of two-dimensional images--for example, a set of absorption photographs of the same object taken from different angles, using penetrating radiation such as radio waves, x rays, or electron beams
. Reconstruction of the full three-dimensional structure from such images requires a model of the attenuation of the radiation beam as it passes through the object.
In the United States, three types of ionizing radiation have been approved for irradiating food: gamma rays, high energy electrons, which are sometimes referred to as electron beams
(or e-beams), and X-rays.