Caption: Figure 1: Geometry of the computational zone: 1: vapor channel; 2: surface of the sample being welded; 3: electron collector
; 4: edges of the calculation zone.
For a shot at pressure of 1.7 mbar and electron beam velocity of 4.6 x [10.sup.7] m/s, the electron beam energy was calculated using the time-of-flight technique from the top part of the hollow anode to the electron collector
The problems can be tackled by modifying the structure of the electron collector
and enhancing the surface area increasing the light absorption.
* The electron collector
is encapsulated, providing electrical shielding, superior stability, and protection against contamination through an auto-degas function that self-heats the sensor during operation.