Mukohyama, "Hot Electron Cooling
by Acoustic Phonons in Graphene," Physical Review Letters, vol.
Slow electron cooling in nanocrystals occurs because forcing the electrons into a smaller volume leads them to oscillate between their alternate extremes within a very short period of time.
By eliminating these other mechanisms, the researchers were able to induce and observe slower electron cooling in nanocrystals.
Brandauer, which employs 72 people, is involved in a large number of niche market projects including supplying an electron cooling
strip for the most powerful particle accelerator ever at Cern outside Geneva; strips for 3M masks; a small device used in the sterilisation of women; push-fit plumbing technology in which they are the world leader and producing components for such diverse devices as satnavs and teeth floss containers.
The contributions are presented in sections covering reports on operating and new projects, general topics, stochastic cooling, electron cooling
, muon cooling, electrostatic rings, laser cooling, and traps.
The idea of electron cooling
in an accelerator's main ring is good in principle, says physicist Sergei Nagaitsev of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Ill.
This scheme, called high-energy electron cooling, helped the Tevatron collider at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Ill., last October to shatter the 23-year-old world record for particle-collision rates.
For decades, particle physicists have used electron cooling to control the properties of particles in low-energy accelerators, but they were daunted by the difficulty of high-energy cooling, comments beam-cooling specialist Fritz Caspers of the European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva.
However, most protons and antiprotons zoom right past each other, explains physicist Sergei Nagaitsev, leader of electron cooling at Fermilab.
He and his team plan to build upon it to equip a giant accelerator there with even higher-energy electron cooling.