This study has the following goals: -To identify and master the key physical processes governing electron cooling
and electric field build-up downstream the thruster in the far field and around the satellite surfaces with their own potentials.
For decades, particle physicists have used electron cooling to control the properties of particles in low-energy accelerators, but they were daunted by the difficulty of high-energy cooling, comments beam-cooling specialist Fritz Caspers of the European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva.
This scheme, called high-energy electron cooling, helped the Tevatron collider at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Ill.
He and his team plan to build upon it to equip a giant accelerator there with even higher-energy electron cooling.
However, electron cooling by itself has so far resulted in a roughly 50 percent increase in the Tevatron's instantaneous collision rate, Nagaitsev says.
The idea of electron cooling
in an accelerator's main ring is good in principle, says physicist Sergei Nagaitsev of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Ill.
The contributions are presented in sections covering reports on operating and new projects, general topics, stochastic cooling, electron cooling
, muon cooling, electrostatic rings, laser cooling, and traps.
Brandauer, which employs 72 people, is involved in a large number of niche market projects including supplying an electron cooling
strip for the most powerful particle accelerator ever at Cern outside Geneva; strips for 3M masks; a small device used in the sterilisation of women; push-fit plumbing technology in which they are the world leader and producing components for such diverse devices as satnavs and teeth floss containers.
By eliminating these other mechanisms, the researchers were able to induce and observe slower electron cooling in nanocrystals.
Slow electron cooling in nanocrystals occurs because forcing the electrons into a smaller volume leads them to oscillate between their alternate extremes within a very short period of time.