In comparison with conventional semiconductors, the very close (sub-nanometre) proximity of a ferroelectric's electron dipole moment to the

electron gas in the atomic crystal ensures more effective switching, overcoming limitations of conventional semiconductors where the conducting channel is buried tens of nanometres below the surface.

They cover the synthesis and applications of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, two dimensional

electron gas at interfaces between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, multiferrorism and magneto-electric applications in bismuth ferrite, recent developments in resistive switching nanocrystalline thin films derived using solution processed techniques, zinc oxide thin films and nanostructures for acoustic wave-based microfluidic and sensing applications, diluted magnetic semiconducting oxides, and first principles in exploring the magnetism of oxide-based diluted magnetic semiconductors.

The theory of the Rashba effect [6] is based on the model of a 2D

electron gas, which might be applicable for true surface states in semiconductor heterostructures, but obviously not for surface resonances in metals.

The team used an existing process, developed by Columbia engineers, which involves using patterned 2D

electron gas to induce electronic properties in the artificially created lattices on the semiconductor.

It is necessary to transport the electrons that come from the source electrode to the two dimensional

electron gas field as smoothly as possible.

The simplest model for a finite two-dimensional

electron gas (2DEG) involves the "jellium" approximation where one assumes that a neutralizing positive charge is uniformly spread over a finite 2D region.

Maude et al., "Collective character of spin excitations in a system of [Mn.sup.2+] spins coupled to a two- dimensional

electron gas," Physical Review Letters, vol.

Abstract: The authors study the 2-D

electron gas at the interface of NdTi03 and SrTi03 to reveal its nanoscale transport properties.

Here, we calculate the nature of the image-potential states in a spherical

electron gas (SEG) confined to the surface of a buckyball in a similar fashion as in the case of a nanotube.

The mobility and the density of the two-dimensional

electron gas (2DEG) formed at the AlGaN/GaN heterointerface were 1100 [cm.sup.2]/V-s and 8 x [10.sup.12]/[cm.sup.2], respectively.

Lundqvist, "New structure in the single-particle spectrum of an

electron gas," Solid State Commun., Vol.

Note that the

electron gas is non-degenerated there, because the electron concentrations are n [less than or equal to] [10.sup.16] [cm.sup.-3].