These calculated values are sufficient for a possible efficient electron injection
into LUMO of the acceptor.
Further, to boost up the injections of electrons from the CGL to the neighboring emitting unit, the combination of thin layers of Al (aluminium) along with LiF (Lithium Fluoride) is used as electron injection
As shown in Figure 5, all [E.sub.ox.sup.*] values are more negative than the CB edge of Ti[O.sub.2] (-0.5 V versus NHE), ensuring an efficient electron injection
process from the excited state of the dyes into the Ti[O.sub.2] electrode.
 used DFT/TD-DFT to study the optical electronic properties of symmetric and asymmetric squaraine dyes of SQD1 -SQD4, finding that there are well energy math between dye and semiconductor, indicating possible electron injection
from the excited dyes to Ti[O.sub.2].
Therefore, half-metallic ferromagnetic materials will undoubtedly be an ideal semiconductor spin electron injection
In efficient DSSC operation, one cycle of photon-to-electricity conversion is completed by fast electron injection
from a photoexcited dye into the Ti[O.sub.2] conduction band and subsequently dye regeneration and holes transportation to the counterelectrode.
We hypothesized that, since the pigments were derived from a single species, desirable interactions between dyes could be achieved through synergistic effect in improving electron injection
, light harvesting, and limitation of electron recombination.
Later on, Swanson and his colleagues explained electron injection
phenomena and its effect to the potential structure inside the chamber .
Thus, the hole injection barrier is [DELTA][E.sub.h] = [E.sub.HOMO] - 4.8 (eV) (4.8 eV is the work function of the ITO anode), whereas the electron injection
barrier is [DELTA][E.sub.e] = 4.3 - [E.sub.LUMO] (eV), where 4.3 eV is the work function of aluminum cathode.
On the other hand, the [J.sub.sc] of DSSCs is also associated with the dark current, which can be given by the equation [J.sub.sc] = [J.sub.inj] - [J.sub.rec], where [J.sub.inj] and [J.sub.rec] are the electron injection
current density and the recombination current density, respectively .
Effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on electron injection
and charge generation in AC field-induced polymer electroluminescence.