These parameters under consideration in the present study include the ion &

electron mass ratio, [m.

Thompson identified a method of measuring the proton to

electron mass ratio in the early universe several years ago, but it is only recently that astronomical instruments became powerful enough to measure the effect.

From the basics and principles of mass spectrometry to specific applications with examples, Even

Electron Mass Spectrometry with Biomolecule Applications covers:

1) can be tuned so that all masses match exactly regardless of uncertainty; instead those values have been chosen to compute exactly the

electron mass and magnetic moment anomaly (assuming the related equations developed later are good-enough for such precision).

Those modifications, made in light of then-newer information on photon mass energy-absorption coefficients [13], on

electron mass electronic (collision) stopping powers [14], [15], and on humidity corrections to air-ionization-chamber results [16], are given in Table 1.

Being already the neutrino Y-contour, it contains the neutrino mass instead of the

electron mass.

Nowadays proton to

electron mass ratio is known with much greater precision: [mu] = [m.

In writing (16) we have used (10), and considered that the proportionality constant K is the same as that used in determining the

electron mass.

itself is massless, while the

electron mass m results from the bare charge being driven by the zero-point electromagnetic field [2] [3]; corresponding to which is a vanishingly small sphere containing the driven charge whose center defines the center of both the driven charge and its derived mass.

m) and in which the

electron mass is created (see the Appendix).

In the Coulomb formula a unit of the charge can be expressed through the

electron mass me and the classical electron radius [r.

Another interesting hypothesis could relate proton to

electron mass ratio with fine structure constant and the number [2.