Ratio Relative Relative electron electron concentration number ([10.sup.21] [cm.sup.-3]) 16.7% 0.8 9.73 12.5% 1.2 14.7 8.34% 1.6 19.3 Table 4: Effective

electron mass. Ratio Two derivation Effective

electron mass ([10.sup.-32] kg) 16.7% 377.9 2.95 12.5% 310.5 3.60 8.34% 148.0 7.44 Table 5: Relative conductivity.

This is fine for WIMPs heavier than 20 times the

electron mass. For WIMPs less than about 20 times the mass of the electron, however, there appears to be a problem arising from the electron binding.

These parameters under consideration in the present study include the ion &

electron mass ratio, [m.sub.i]/[m.sub.p], their temperature ratio, [T.sub.e0]/[T.sub.i0], electron relative speed ([[xi].sub.V], as well as the initial speeds of plasma fluids along x, [U.sub.x0].

where m is the

electron mass at zero temperature and [delta]m(T = 0) represents the radiative corrections from a vacuum and [delta]m(T) are the contributions from the thermal background at nonzero temperature T.

Note that, in (6), the first term is the bare

electron mass, [m.sub.e], and the second term corresponds to the expected electron energy contribution to the mass operator, whereas the third term is the nontrivial virial contribution to the gravitational mass operator.

Seabaugh, "Thickness and effective

electron mass measurements for thin silicon dioxide films using tunneling current oscillations," Applied Physics Letters, vol.

l = h / mc = 10 -13 cm should have rest mass 275 times larger than that of

electron mass. The name mesotron was given to this exchange particle.

Here, [sigma] is the neutron spin; [m.sub.e] is the

electron mass, [E.sub.e], [E.sub.v], [p.sub.e], and [p.sub.v] are the energies and momenta of the electron and neutrino, respectively; and [G.sub.F] is Fermi constant of weak interaction (obtained from the [mu]-decay rate).

That's still just one-third of the speed of electrons in graphene, but in principle the

electron mass can be further reduced - and their speed increased - if different metals are used to coat the silicon, he added.

Figure 2 illustrates the calculated branch ing ratio as a function of [E.sub.[gamma],min] expressed in units of the

electron mass. This leads to a value for the energy range 35 keV < [E.sub.[gamma]] < 100 keV of about 0.1%.

Therefore, the rest mass of the fundamental oscillator can be even smaller than the

electron mass. Consequently, all elementary particles can be interpreted as eigenstates in a chain system of harmonic quantum oscillators, in which the rest mass of each single oscillator goes to zero.