A wide variety of different diagnostic approaches have been developed; arguably the most successful are Langmuir conductivity probes, used to determine ion and electron number
densities, electron temperatures and plasma potentials.
Hui-Chun Wu of Zhejiang University combined data on energy, electron number
, and length of electron bunches released from lightning with a model of satellite TIPPs data.
Whether or not the communications blackout occurs depends on the electron number density (END), the critical electron number density (CEND) at the link frequency, such as UHF.
The diagram of the three orbiter navigation scenarios and the position of the UHF antenna, the stagnation point and the wake-region, which need to estimate the electron number density, is shown in Figure 1.
Also, plasma parameters, temperature, and electron number density for plasma created by C[O.sub.2] and Nd:YAG laser pulses were evaluated and compared.
The dissociation, ionization, and excitation processes taking place in plasma are related to characteristic parameters of plasma such as temperatures (T) and electron number densities ([n.sub.e]).
Formula RTI([alpha]nF) is usually used to estimate the slope in E-lnv relationship ; herein, n is the reaction electron number, F is Faraday constant, R is gas constant, and a represents electron transfer coefficient (usually is 0.5).
The real reaction electron number of UA and Xa were calculated to be 1.964 and 1.913, respectively, in pH 3.0 phosphate buffer solution.
A Mobius molecule will be aromatic only when the electron number
is a multiple of four, Miliordos reports online December 28 in Physical Review A.
For laboratory plasmas of all types, [Lambda.sub.D] is approximately 1 cm, although it quickly becomes large for gases with very low electron number
densities or high temperatures.
Such spectra "depend drastically upon the size of dots and on the electron number
," Ashoori says.
The increase of Tc(P) depends mainly on the rate of increase of s / p electron numbers
with pressure for AlN.