4 Formation of the Frolich electron pairs
Important numerical experiments carried out by Greenspan  provide strong confirmation of this magnetic interaction and the attraction it produces between anti-parallel electron pairs
In fact, the new order is also present when the material is superconducting; it had been overlooked before, masked by the behavior of superconducting electron pairs
The new calculations show in detail what other theorists previously sketched: that magnesium diboride contains two distinct families of electron pairs
, one in which the electrons are weakly coupled and one in which they're strongly joined.
In superconducting materials, electrons form pairs, called Cooper pairs, below a critical temperature and these electron pairs
Therefore, the choice for the energy fluctuation time during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition of electron pairs
is taken to be the Planck time [T.
Compared with transitions of electron pairs
in super-conducting metals, which suddenly fall apart at certain temperatures, the rare earth transitions are "smeared," he says.
Some theorists have proposed that magnetic interactions between the electrons and copper atoms play a key role in forging electron pairs
In this case, the wave function is spherical, indicating that the electron pairs
have an equal chance of moving in any direction.
The researchers determined the binding force between superconducting electron pairs
by measuring differences in the energy and direction of electrons emitted from a material in its normal and superconducting states.
Although theorists are certain that pairing occurs, they have so far been unable to agree on what mechanism leads to the formation of electron pairs
in these materials.
Showing how the electronic structure affects kink mobility enabled Gilman to calculate the amount of stress needed to form the kinks, break up electron pairs
, and move the kinks.