pdc], we use the plasma isothermicity condition in the channel of the considered electric arc, according to which its maximum electron temperature
The results of optical emission spectroscopy analysis showed that the electron temperature
values increase near the cathode with increasing voltages, while the opposite behavior in the center and near the anode.
For a given location, time and date, IRI provides monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature
, ion temperature and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 km to 2000 km.
The most suitable case would be a law involving electron temperature
and electric potential only.
In this work, the electron temperature
and density were determined using spectroscopic techniques, including the lines-continuum ratio, line-line ratio and Stark broadening techniques.
Mapping the distribution of electron temperature
and Fe charge states in the corona with total solar eclipse observations.
His major contributions were in soft x-ray measurements of million-degree electron temperatures
(he made the first "two-foil" soft x-ray electron temperature
measurements), including Bragg-crystal spectroscopy; optical and laser holographic interferometry for plasma densities and shapes; Riser scattering (for plasma electron temperature
); Faraday rotation measurements of plasma magnetic fields, as well as external magnetic fields and currents using phase conjugation in single-mode optical fibers.
When the current increases the electron temperature
will drop due to step-wise ionization at higher current density.
Combined with observations of other iron charge states, the observations yield the two-dimensional distribution of electron temperature
and charge-state measurements for the first time, and establish the first direct link between the distribution of charge states in the corona and in interplanetary space.
is found to be in the range 4.
In their initial demonstration, Martinis and his colleagues lowered the electron temperature
from 100 to 85 millikelvins.
These atoms (molecules) of a substance will be the main <<suppliers>> of additional free electrons in the LL channel, the electron temperature