The most suitable case would be a law involving electron temperature
and electric potential only.
Mapping the distribution of electron temperature
and Fe charge states in the corona with total solar eclipse observations.
His major contributions were in soft x-ray measurements of million-degree electron temperatures
(he made the first "two-foil" soft x-ray electron temperature
measurements), including Bragg-crystal spectroscopy; optical and laser holographic interferometry for plasma densities and shapes; Riser scattering (for plasma electron temperature
); Faraday rotation measurements of plasma magnetic fields, as well as external magnetic fields and currents using phase conjugation in single-mode optical fibers.
When the current increases the electron temperature
will drop due to step-wise ionization at higher current density.
Combined with observations of other iron charge states, the observations yield the two-dimensional distribution of electron temperature
and charge-state measurements for the first time, and establish the first direct link between the distribution of charge states in the corona and in interplanetary space.
is found to be in the range 4.
In their initial demonstration, Martinis and his colleagues lowered the electron temperature
from 100 to 85 millikelvins.
The electron temperature
and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of the spectral lines of six elements Fe, Mg, Be, Si, Mn, and Cu in the aluminum alloys.
Many measurements were recorded including multi-cord x-ray spectroscopy that measures the energetic electron temperature
profile, arrays of magnetic flux loops and sensors that measure the pressure-driven diamagnetic currents, visible video photography that measures the evolution of the plasma structure, microwave interferometry that measures plasma density, and electrostatic probes inserted to measure the parameters of the edge plasma.
2 megawatts, the researchers pushed the plasma's ion temperature to 430 million kelvins and its electron temperature
to 120 million kelvins.
Using plasma that has both a high density and a low electron temperature
, this technology enables the generation of high concentrations of oxygen radicals.
Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature
assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions.