For the ionization mechanism, [T.sub.max] corresponds to the ionization potential of the electron trap
A dopant ion may act as an electron trap
or hole trap.
, the suppression of the dark current for the posttreated photoanodes would indicate a decrease of the electron trap
sites on the Ti[O.sub.2] surface.
Garlick, GFJ, Gibson, AF, "The Electron Trap
Mechanism of Luminescence in Sulphide and Silicate Phosphors." Proc.
Recombination at this trap should give red luminescence, while the orange luminescence band at higher temperatures should be caused by a recombination of released holes at some electron trap
near [Mn.sup.2+] at the [Li.sup.+] site (where the oxygen environment is not so tight).
All detectors are equipped with an optimised electron trap
, which supports interference-free x-ray detection, even at very low excitation energies.
To significantly reduce the background signal from incoherently scattered electrons, the film is mounted over an electron trap
so that the electrons penetrating through the particles also penetrate the film and are absorbed in the trap.
These defect states serve as electron trap
states, retarding both the electron transport toward the FTO substrate and electron recombination with the electrolyte [4, 18].
However, Ti[O.sub.2] nanoparticles used in DSSCs are usually as a random network of crystallographically misaligned crystallites, and lattice mismatches at the grain boundaries could influence electron scattering and act as electron trap
[31, 34, 35].
Doping of Ti[O.sub.2] with Ce introduces a new energy level (Ce impurity level) by the dispersion of metal nanoparticles in the Ti[O.sub.2] matrix which acts as electron trap
For MIS type GaN power transistors, the issue was that a hysteresis attributed to electron traps
within the gate insulator was often observed in the drain current characteristics resulting in a variation of the threshold voltage.
The defect states available can function as electron traps