In general, charge polarization in MWCNT/polymer (nonpolar) composites originates from three sources, namely (1) interfacial polarization, (2) MWCNT polarization, and (3) electronic polarization of polymer.
The electronic polarization of polymer matrix is the third side of the charge polarization triangle in MWCNT/polymer composites.
In the SEOP method, electronic polarization is produced by optical pumping of alkali atoms (usually rubidium), and the polarization is transferred to the [.
Electronic polarization of the potassium atoms occurs on a rapid time scale due to Rb-K spin-exchange collisions, hence high potassium polarization can be maintained.
The new line of probes provide higher speed, accuracy and resolution than any other probes currently available when used with electronic polarization
It has been observed that the variation of AC conductivity as a function of frequency (not shown here) increases with the frequency for both the PMMA and the composites and as reported (18), the increase in AC conductivity at low frequency is due to the interfacial polarization and in the high frequency region, it is attributed to the electronic polarization
In the metastability-exchange method, electronic polarization
is produced by optical pumping of metastable helium atoms, and the polarization is rapidly transferred to the nucleus of the metastable atom via the hyperfine interaction.