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(stĕth`əskōp') [Gr.,=chest viewer], instrument that enables the physican to hear the sounds made by the heart, the lungs, and various other organs. The earliest stethoscope, devised by the French physician R. T. H. LaënnecLaënnec, René Théophile Hyacinthe
, 1781–1826, French physician. While connected with the Necker Hospital in Paris he invented the stethoscope, which he described, together with the symptoms he had noted through its use, in his classic book
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 in the early 19th cent., consisted of a slender wooden tube about 1 ft (30 cm) long, one end of which had a broad flange, or bell-shaped opening. When this opening was placed against the chest of the patient, the physician, by placing his ear against the opposite opening, could hear the sounds of breathing and of heart action.

The stethoscope changed little until the beginning of the 20th cent. when the binaural instrument was developed by G. P. Cammann, a New York physician. It consisted of two earpieces with flexible rubber tubing connecting them to the two-branched metal chest cone. Thus the sounds could be heard with both ears, and the instrument's flexibility permitted the physician to listen to various areas without changing his position. Electronic stethoscopes make it possible for several clinicians to listen at the same time to the sounds emitted by a particular organ.

Stethoscopy (also called auscultation), used together with percussion (light tapping of the chest), is a fundamental diagnostic measure in medical practice. The qualities of the sounds emitted by the lungs and heart denote the health or abnormality of these organs. Many diseases of the heart and lungs, and sometimes of the stomach, blood vessels, and intestines, can be recognized early by skillful use of the stethoscope.


See study by M. D. Blaufox (2001).



an instrument for listening to cardiac, respiratory, and other sounds originating within the body of man and animals. The stethoscope was invented in 1816 by the French physician R. Laёnnec (1781–1826), who developed the diagnostic method of auscultation.

Rodlike stethoscopes are shaped like wooden or hard rubber tubes with funnels of different diameters at the ends. Their advantage is that they can transmit sound not only through a column of air but through the solid part of the stethoscope and the temporal bone of the examiner. Binaural stethoscopes, which are more common, consist of a funnel and elastic tubes, the ends of which are inserted into the external acoustic meatus. More convenient to use during examinations than simple stethoscopes, binaural stethoscopes are often combined with phonendoscopes, which intensify auscultatory sounds.


An instrument for indirect auscultation for the detection and study of sounds arising within the body; sounds are conveyed to the ears of the examiner through rubber tubing connected to a funnel or disk-shaped endpiece.


1. Med an instrument for listening to the sounds made within the body, typically consisting of a hollow disc that transmits the sound through hollow tubes to earpieces
2. a narrow cylinder expanded at both ends to recieve and transmit fetal sounds
References in periodicals archive ?
Wireless electronic stethoscope and development of the mobile application can lead to the device come in handy and can be used by the patients to send data to the professionals.
Its amazing capacity to detect even the faintest of sounds comes from the following features:Proprietary Ambient Noise Reduction TechnologyThe 3Mao LittmannA Electronic Stethoscope Model 3200 cancels out, on average, 85% of ambient background noise that can interfere with the auscultation experience, without eliminating critical body sounds.
Mobile and wireless POC devices--ranging from e-prescription pads to electronic stethoscopes to tablet PCs that display everything from patient records to radiology images--have already begun appearing in clinical settings.
The system had bi-directional, real-time audio and video communication capabilities and was linked to a remote-controlled robot equipped with a video camera, microphone, electronic stethoscope, liquid crystal display screen and motorized platform under the control of the off-site neonatologist.
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Physicians on the ground will be able to hear the actual heartbeat of astronauts in space in real-time utilizing the 3M[TM] Littmann([R]) Electronic Stethoscope Model 3200 and telemedicine software package.
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In tandem with the innovative 3M[TM] Littmann[R] Electronic Stethoscope Model 3200, the Scope-to-Scope Software is transforming the tele-auscultation experience so clinicians can consult with colleagues in real-time, across data networks, anywhere in the world.
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Littmann electronic stethoscope Model 3200 with Zargis Cardioscan heart sound analysis software (Gold)

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