electrophile


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electrophile

[i′lek·trō‚fīl]
(physical chemistry)
An electron-deficient ion or molecule that takes part in an electrophilic process.
References in periodicals archive ?
47) Furthermore, a recent study in cultured liver cancer cells (48) showed that chlorophyllin was one of the most potent inducers of a set of enzymes that protect the cells against potentially harmful oxidants and electrophiles, two types of unstable molecules that damage tissues and contribute to cancer.
Electrophile response element-mediated induction of the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter gene expression.
4], the reaction of phenol-formol comes from the condensation of methanol (formol) on a phenolic cycle, the reaction is a substitution electrophile in ortho/para on aromatic activated, one can summarised the mechanism of the formation of the prepolymere [21] as follow: the protonation of formol gives an electrophile (figure 6), the condensation of the electrophile on phenol giving a benzene alcohol (figure.
Essentially every compound targeted and prepared is new because of the difficulty inherent in other methods, and the syntheses represent another group of reactions where an anionic nucleophile is condensed with an anionic electrophile.
If free amine is not available to convert allylic bromide to N-alkylation products, then loss of electrophile to dehydrohalogenation will impact negatively on crosslink yields.
HNE is an endogenous electrophile permanently formed from lipoperoxidation of lipoproteins and cell membranes; it therefore can be expected that HNE is generated everywhere in the organism, but to a different extent.
The role of the electrophile is here to form an intermediate complex with the substrate, thereby increasing its reactivity toward the desired nucleophile.
Essentially every compound targeted and prepared is new because of the difficulty inherent in traditional and other methods, and the syntheses represent another group of reactions where an anionic nucleophile is condensed with an anionic electrophile.
Phase-II detoxifying enzymes are primarily regulated through the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which controls the expression of various cytopro-tective genes that contain an antioxidant response element (ARE) or electrophile response element (EpRE) in their promoter region (Itoh et al.
The MDA is a reactive aldehyde, and is one of the many reactive electrophile species that are known to generate toxicity, oxidative stress in cells by forming covalent protein adducts which are referred as advanced lipoxidation end products (Farmer and Davoine 2007; Moore and Roberts 1998).