electrophile


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electrophile

[i′lek·trō‚fīl]
(physical chemistry)
An electron-deficient ion or molecule that takes part in an electrophilic process.
References in periodicals archive ?
Our quantitative analysis of the reactivity of redox-sensitive TRP channels revealed that TRPA1 has the highest sensitivity to disulphides among the TRPs that we tested, predicting that only TRPA1 responds to a relatively inert electrophile, diallyl disulphide, with a redox potential of -2,950 mV.
Functional activity of Nrf2 strongly depends on its regulation by the Keapl adaptor protein, in the absence of electrophiles or oxidants, Keapl binds to and sequesters Nrf2 in the cytoplasm, resulting in Nrf2 ubiquitination by Cul3 and degradation in the proteasome.
47) Furthermore, a recent study in cultured liver cancer cells (48) showed that chlorophyllin was one of the most potent inducers of a set of enzymes that protect the cells against potentially harmful oxidants and electrophiles, two types of unstable molecules that damage tissues and contribute to cancer.
a 2300-fold increase in the rate of chloride elimination accompanies a 200-mV potential decrease), and (ii) lower potentials favor electrophile trapping (ketonization) over nucleophile trapping of the quinonemethide intermediate [2].
The possible explanations for these results included metal ions that may activate electrophile and nucleophile binding, and release electrons to modulate PO activity (Stryer 1995), or divalent cations that may change the secondary structure of certain peptides of PO to influence PO activity (Feng et al.
This important regulatory element was also called the electrophile responsive element (EpRE) (32).
The remaining 10% is metabolized via the cytochrome P-450 pathway to form N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), a potent electrophile, which is rapidly converted to a nontoxic moiety and excreted via conjugation with reduced glutathione.
The reaction phenol-formol corresponds to an electrophile substitution in both acid and alkaline medium where the attack on the para position is supported by polar solvent and the acid conditions whereas the attack on the position ortho is supported by non-polar solvent in the alkaline medium [18].
Its potential to act as an electrophile and act with macromolecules such as DNA, RNA and protein to form reversible adducts or irreversible cross-links (International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, 1995) makes it as a conventional tissue fixative (particularly in cadaver's fixation).
Every compound targeted and prepared is new because of the difficulty inherent in traditional and other methods, and the synthesis represents another group of reactions where an anionic nucleophile is condensed with an anionic electrophile.
The hydroxyl group of Tyr115 was found hydrogen-bonded to the 10-hydroxyl group of (9S,10S)-2, a fact suggesting that this residue could act as an electrophile to stabilize the transition state for the addition of GSH to epoxides.