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(ĭlĕk'trōfərē`sĭs): see colloidcolloid
[Gr.,=gluelike], a mixture in which one substance is divided into minute particles (called colloidal particles) and dispersed throughout a second substance. The mixture is also called a colloidal system, colloidal solution, or colloidal dispersion.
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(also cataphoresis), the migration of colloidal particles or ionized macromolecules under the influence of an external electric field. Electrophoresis was discovered by F. F. Reuss in 1807; it is regarded as the most important electrokinetic phenomenon. An approximate relation between the velocity v of the moving particles and the electric field strength E is given by Smoluchowski’s equation:

where η is the viscosity of the medium, D is the dielectric constant, and £ is the electrokinetic potential.

Electrophoresis is used in electrochemistry to study the electric double layer and ion adsorption on a surface; it also has medical applications. In industry it is used to isolate natural rubber from latex, purify water, and separate kaolin from sand. It is used in biochemistry to analyze, separate, and purify biopolymers (chiefly proteins), bacterial cells, viruses, amino acids, and vitamins.

The practical application of electrophoresis began after the Swedish scientist A. Tiselius designed a special apparatus for the moving-boundary electrophoresis of proteins in solution (1937). Electrophoretic methods involving the use of inert carriers, such as paper and gels, have gained the widest application. They have been given the general designation of zone electrophoresis because fractions of the separate substances form separate immiscible zones in the carrier. Electrophoresis is frequently combined with other methods of separating organic compounds, for example, with chromatography. A technique has been developed for concentrating the electrophoretic zones of biopolymers in gels, which increases the resolving power of the method (disk electrophoresis). The combining of the antigen-antibody reaction with electrophoresis was the basis for the creation of immunoelectrophoresis. Electrophoretic analysis of biological fluids, such as blood serum (used primarily to study proteins), is widely used in the diagnosis of many diseases.


Larskii, E. G. Melody zonal’nogo elektroforeza. Moscow, 1971.
Dukhin, S. S., and B. V. Deriagin. Elektroforez. Moscow, 1976.



(physical chemistry)
An electrochemical process in which colloidal particles or macromolecules with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current. Also known as cataphoresis.


The science of objects moving in a fluid when an electric charge is applied. Electrophoresis is the basis of E Ink's electronic paper display technology (see E Ink).
References in periodicals archive ?
However, under the assumption of separate evolution of the two ploidy components, unusually high mutation rates to electrophoretically identical alleles must be invoked to explain the observed intrapopulational homogeneity between the ploidy levels.
Equal amounts of protein were resolved on 10% SDS-PAGE gels and electrophoretically transferred to polyvinylidense fluoride membranes (Immobilon P; Amersham, Buckinghamshire, UK).
We also found that the increased concentrations of electrophoretically slow-moving LD isoenzymes in many gastric cancer cell lines are attributable to transcriptional silencing of LDHB expression by aberrant promoter methylation (4).
After separation by SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), polypeptides were transferred electrophoretically to an Immobilon-P membrane (Millipore, Bedford, MA) and reacted with antiserum directed against the 100-kilodalton (kD) PM-ATPase (PMA-1) from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.
Furthermore, three electrophoretically distinct minor forms of the enzyme have been found in other developmental stages of D.
Proteins were separated on SDS-PAGE, electrophoretically transferred to a PVDF membrane, and probed with a specific rabbit antihuman ERK1/2 or p38 antibody according to the manufacturer's protocols.
We tested serum samples from patients with AIH, positive for SLA by a modified inhibition ELISA (13) and radioligand assay (3), by immunoblotting on strips electrophoretically separated primate liver homogenate containing the cytosolic fraction (3).
The resulting progeny were assayed electrophoretically at a number of isozyme loci.
The addition of a cesium chloride ultracentrifugation step permitted the recovery of high yields of spectrophotometrically and electrophoretically pure RNA preparations, irrespective of pigmentation or species.
Separated proteins were electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, blocked with 5% skim milk solution for 3h at 4 [degrees]C, and then incubated with primary antibodies overnight at 4 [degrees]C.
Electrophoretic comparisons of an adult and its brooded offspring have shown that the larvae of this species can be produced through outcrossed sexual reproduction (Ayre and Resing 1986), and preliminary surveys of four local populations revealed that most individuals were electrophoretically distinct (i.

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