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(ĭlĕk'trōfərē`sĭs): see colloidcolloid
[Gr.,=gluelike], a mixture in which one substance is divided into minute particles (called colloidal particles) and dispersed throughout a second substance. The mixture is also called a colloidal system, colloidal solution, or colloidal dispersion.
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(also cataphoresis), the migration of colloidal particles or ionized macromolecules under the influence of an external electric field. Electrophoresis was discovered by F. F. Reuss in 1807; it is regarded as the most important electrokinetic phenomenon. An approximate relation between the velocity v of the moving particles and the electric field strength E is given by Smoluchowski’s equation:

where η is the viscosity of the medium, D is the dielectric constant, and £ is the electrokinetic potential.

Electrophoresis is used in electrochemistry to study the electric double layer and ion adsorption on a surface; it also has medical applications. In industry it is used to isolate natural rubber from latex, purify water, and separate kaolin from sand. It is used in biochemistry to analyze, separate, and purify biopolymers (chiefly proteins), bacterial cells, viruses, amino acids, and vitamins.

The practical application of electrophoresis began after the Swedish scientist A. Tiselius designed a special apparatus for the moving-boundary electrophoresis of proteins in solution (1937). Electrophoretic methods involving the use of inert carriers, such as paper and gels, have gained the widest application. They have been given the general designation of zone electrophoresis because fractions of the separate substances form separate immiscible zones in the carrier. Electrophoresis is frequently combined with other methods of separating organic compounds, for example, with chromatography. A technique has been developed for concentrating the electrophoretic zones of biopolymers in gels, which increases the resolving power of the method (disk electrophoresis). The combining of the antigen-antibody reaction with electrophoresis was the basis for the creation of immunoelectrophoresis. Electrophoretic analysis of biological fluids, such as blood serum (used primarily to study proteins), is widely used in the diagnosis of many diseases.


Larskii, E. G. Melody zonal’nogo elektroforeza. Moscow, 1971.
Dukhin, S. S., and B. V. Deriagin. Elektroforez. Moscow, 1976.



(physical chemistry)
An electrochemical process in which colloidal particles or macromolecules with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current. Also known as cataphoresis.


The science of objects moving in a fluid when an electric charge is applied. Electrophoresis is the basis of E Ink's electronic paper display technology (see E Ink).
References in periodicals archive ?
RBS analysis of electrophoretically deposited films--A typical RBS spectrum of the electrophoretically deposited CdSe films is shown in Fig.
For the immunotransfer technique, once the gel was electrophoretically fractioned by SDS-PAGE to 10% it was transferred to nitrocellulose membranes (0.
It is not unusual for monoclonal IgA paraproteins to be electrophoretically heterogeneous.
The (NiCoCrAlY) layer was deposited using the electrophoretic deposition technique, the MgO layer was deposited by the electrolytic deposition technique and the YSZ layer was electrophoretically deposited.
Following qPCR, products were separated electrophoretically to ensure amplification of a single fragment of the expected size.
The products of the PCR amplification (GSTM1:219 bp, CYP2E1: 495 bp) were separated electrophoretically on an ethidium bromide stained 2% agarose gel.
The samples were electrophoretically separated at 180mA for 90min and then transferred onto PVDF membranes (ATTO, Japan).
PPG Industries has been granted a patent for a process for coating an electroconductive substrate comprised of electrophoretically depositing on the substrate a curable electrodepositable coating composition to form an electrodeposited coating over at least a portion of the substrate.
The book is presented in 11 chapters which cover topics such as scaling effects in organic transistors and transistor-based chemical sensors, organic thin-film transistors for inorganic substance monitoring, strain and pressure sensors based on organic field-effect transistors, Integrated pyroelectric sensors, organic chemical and biological sensors based on light-emitting diodes, organic semiconductor lasers as integrated light sources for optical sensors, and electrophoretically deposited polymers for organic electronics.

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