electrophoresis

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electrophoresis

(ĭlĕk'trōfərē`sĭs): see colloidcolloid
[Gr.,=gluelike], a mixture in which one substance is divided into minute particles (called colloidal particles) and dispersed throughout a second substance. The mixture is also called a colloidal system, colloidal solution, or colloidal dispersion.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Electrophoresis

 

(also cataphoresis), the migration of colloidal particles or ionized macromolecules under the influence of an external electric field. Electrophoresis was discovered by F. F. Reuss in 1807; it is regarded as the most important electrokinetic phenomenon. An approximate relation between the velocity v of the moving particles and the electric field strength E is given by Smoluchowski’s equation:

where η is the viscosity of the medium, D is the dielectric constant, and £ is the electrokinetic potential.

Electrophoresis is used in electrochemistry to study the electric double layer and ion adsorption on a surface; it also has medical applications. In industry it is used to isolate natural rubber from latex, purify water, and separate kaolin from sand. It is used in biochemistry to analyze, separate, and purify biopolymers (chiefly proteins), bacterial cells, viruses, amino acids, and vitamins.

The practical application of electrophoresis began after the Swedish scientist A. Tiselius designed a special apparatus for the moving-boundary electrophoresis of proteins in solution (1937). Electrophoretic methods involving the use of inert carriers, such as paper and gels, have gained the widest application. They have been given the general designation of zone electrophoresis because fractions of the separate substances form separate immiscible zones in the carrier. Electrophoresis is frequently combined with other methods of separating organic compounds, for example, with chromatography. A technique has been developed for concentrating the electrophoretic zones of biopolymers in gels, which increases the resolving power of the method (disk electrophoresis). The combining of the antigen-antibody reaction with electrophoresis was the basis for the creation of immunoelectrophoresis. Electrophoretic analysis of biological fluids, such as blood serum (used primarily to study proteins), is widely used in the diagnosis of many diseases.

REFERENCES

Larskii, E. G. Melody zonal’nogo elektroforeza. Moscow, 1971.
Dukhin, S. S., and B. V. Deriagin. Elektroforez. Moscow, 1976.

N. N. CHERNOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

electrophoresis

[i‚lek·trō·fə′rē·səs]
(physical chemistry)
An electrochemical process in which colloidal particles or macromolecules with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current. Also known as cataphoresis.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

electrophoresis

The science of objects moving in a fluid when an electric charge is applied. Electrophoresis is the basis of E Ink's electronic paper display technology (see E Ink).
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References in periodicals archive ?
For SDS-PAGE, 30 pg protein of each sample was filled up with 5x sample loading buffer (375 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 60% glycerol, 0.3% (w/v) SDS, and 1,5% bromophenol blue) and separated electrophoretically through a 10% SDS-gel with a ratio of 29: 1 acrylamide: BIS-acrylamide.
Cell lysates containing equal amounts of protein (40 [micro]g) were separated by SDS-PAGE and electrophoretically transferred to a PVDF membrane.
The proteins were electrophoretically separated on 10% SDS gels, and Western blot analysis with anti-OS-9 specific antibodies (Origene, Rockville, MD) was usedto evaluate changes in OS9 levels and fragmentation over time.
W Park et al., "Utility of electrophoretically derived protein mass estimates as additional constraints in proteome analysis of human serum based on MS/MS analysis," Proteomics, vol.
When run under their "standard conditions" (40-60 g/L), the variant Hb migrated with Hb A, from which it was "electrophoretically indistinguishable," only making the Hb A band appear "slightly broader".
[2] With Itano, a physical chemist Linus Pauling demonstrated electrophoretically abnormal haemoglobin, HbS as abnormal variant of HbA in 1949.
Abstract--The time-dependent formation of electrophoretically deposited cadmium selenide (CdSe) films on silicon substrates was investigated.
Subsequently, the proteins were electrophoretically transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane.
The proteins were then transferred electrophoretically using a PVDF membrane by standard procedures.
Proteins were electrophoretically transferred to PVDF membranes (Millipore, MA, USA).
Equivalent amount of protein (10 [micro]g) from each sample was electrophoretically resolved on 12.5% precast SDS-polyacrylamide gels (ExcelGel, GE Healthcare Biosciences) using horizontal apparatus (Pharmacia Biotech, Uppsala, Sweden).
The WCA and SSA of all the isolates separated on 12.5% (w/v) SDS-PAGE slabs [21] were transferred electrophoretically on nitrocellulose membrane papers (NCP) (Sartorius).